FL118 (Synonyms: 10,11-(Methylenedioxy)-20(S)-camptothecin)
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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.
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|Shipping Condition||Evaluation sample solution: shipped with blue ice. All other sizes available: with RT, or with Blue Ice upon request.|
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FL118, acting as a 'molecular glue degrader', binds to dephosphorylates and degrades the oncoprotein DDX5 (p68) to control c-Myc, survivin and mutant Kras against colorectal and pancreatic cancer with high efficacy
Clin Transl Med 2022 May;12(5):e881.PMID:35604033DOI:10.1002/ctm2.881.
Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a difficult-to-treat cancer, is expected to become the second-largest cause of cancer-related deaths by 2030, while colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths. Currently, there is no effective treatment for PDAC patients. The development of novel agents to effectively treat these cancers remains an unmet clinical need. FL118, a novel anticancer small molecule, exhibits high efficacy against cancers; however, the direct biochemical target of FL118 is unknown. Methods: FL118 affinity purification, mass spectrometry, Nanosep centrifugal device and isothermal titration calorimetry were used for identifying and confirming FL118 binding to DDX5/p68 and its binding affinity. Immunoprecipitation (IP), western blots, real-time reverse transcription PCR, gene silencing, overexpression (OE) and knockout (KO) were used for analysing gene/protein function and expression. Chromatin IP was used for analysing protein-DNA interactions. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromid assay and human PDAC/CRC cell/tumour models were used for determining PDAC/CRC cell/tumour in vitro and in vivo growth. Results: We discovered that FL118 strongly binds to dephosphorylates and degrades the DDX5 oncoprotein via the proteasome degradation pathway without decreasing DDX5 mRNA. Silencing and OE of DDX5 indicated that DDX5 is a master regulator for controlling the expression of multiple oncogenic proteins, including survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP, cIAP2, c-Myc and mutant Kras. Genetic manipulation of DDX5 in PDAC cells affects tumour growth. PDAC cells with DDX5 KO are resistant to FL118 treatment. Our human tumour animal model studies further indicated that FL118 exhibits high efficacy to eliminate human PDAC and CRC tumours that have a high expression of DDX5, while FL118 exhibits less effectiveness in PDAC and CRC tumours with low DDX5 expression. Conclusion: DDX5 is a bona fide FL118 direct target and can act as a biomarker for predicting PDAC and CRC tumour sensitivity to FL118. This would greatly impact FL118 precision medicine for patients with advanced PDAC or advanced CRC in the clinic. FL118 may act as a 'molecular glue degrader' to directly glue DDX5 and ubiquitination regulators together to degrade DDX5.
Irinotecan: 25 years of cancer treatment
Pharmacol Res 2019 Oct;148:104398.PMID:31415916DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104398.
Twenty-five years ago, the cytotoxic drug irinotecan (IRT) was first approved in Japan for the treatment of cancer. For more than two decades, the IRT prodrug has largely contributed to the treatment of solid tumors worldwide. Nowadays, this camptothecin derivative targeting topoisomerase 1 remains largely used in combination regimen, like FOLFIRI and FOLFIRINOX, to treat metastatic or advanced solid tumors, such as colon, gastric and pancreatic cancers and others. This review highlights recent discoveries in the field of IRT and its derivatives, including analogues of the active metabolite SN38 (such as FL118), the recently approved liposomal form Nal-IRI and SN38-based immuno-conjugates currently in development (such as sacituzumab govitecan). New information about the IRT mechanism of action are presented, including the discovery of a new protein target, the single-stranded DNA-binding protein FUBP1. Significant progress has been made also to better understand and manage the main limiting toxicities of IRT, chiefly neutropenia and diarrhea. The role of drug-induced inflammation and dysbiosis is underlined and strategies to limit the intestinal toxicity of IRT are discussed (use of β-glucuronidase inhibitors, plant extracts, probiotics). The detailed knowledge of the metabolism of IRT has enabled the identification of potential biomarkers to guide patient selection and to limit drug-induced toxicities, but no robust IRT-specific therapeutic biomarker has been approved yet. IRT is a versatile chemotherapeutic agent which combines well with a variety of anticancer drugs. It offers a large range of drug combinations with cytotoxic agents, targeted products and immuno-active biotherapeutics, to treat a variety of advanced solid carcinoma, sarcoma and cancers with progressive central nervous system diseases. A quarter of century after its first launch, IRT remains an essential anticancer drug, largely prescribed, useful to many patients and scientifically inspiring.
FL118 inhibits viability and induces apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells via inactivating the CIP2A/PP2A axis
Life Sci 2019 Dec 15;239:117074.PMID:31751585DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2019.117074.
Aims: FL118, a novel camptothecin analogue, has been extensively studied for its superior antitumor potency. The aim of this research study is to explore its potential mechanism of action in anti- colorectal cancer (CRC). Main methods: The effect of FL118 on CRC cell proliferation was assessed using CCK-8 assay, while apoptosis was detected using Hoechst staining and Flow cytometry assays. The expression levels of CIP2A were analyzed using qRT-PCR. The expression of CIP2A, PP2A-C, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP were analyzed using western blotting analysis. The expressions of related proteins in CRC tissues were detected using immunohistochemical staining. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis of tissue. Toxicity of FL118 in primary organs were examined using H&E staining. Key findings: The results show that FL118 can inhibit the proliferation and clonogenic potential of CRC cells and increase the expression of pro-apoptosis proteins, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP. Microarray analyses found that FL118 treatment significantly decreases cancerous inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A). Further validation found that CIP2A is aberrantly upregulated in CRC tissues, and is positively correlated with the progression of CRC. In vitro findings confirm that FL118 mediates the downregulation of CIP2A, at both protein and mRNA levels. Co-treatment with Okadaic acid (OA) (a PP2A inhibitor) partially abolishes the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of FL118. Consistently, in vivo experiment demonstrates that FL118 can effectively suppress tumorigenesis without any obvious toxic effects. Significance: Collectively, these findings exhibit the anti-neoplastic effects of FL118 against CRC through the down regulation of CIP2A, which subsequently enhances the activity of PP2A.
Kidney cancer biomarkers and targets for therapeutics: survivin (BIRC5), XIAP, MCL-1, HIF1α, HIF2α, NRF2, MDM2, MDM4, p53, KRAS and AKT in renal cell carcinoma
J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Aug 12;40(1):254.PMID:34384473DOI:10.1186/s13046-021-02026-1.
The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is increasing worldwide with an approximate 20% mortality rate. The challenge in RCC is the therapy-resistance. Cancer resistance to treatment employs multiple mechanisms due to cancer heterogeneity with multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. These changes include aberrant overexpression of (1) anticancer cell death proteins (e.g., survivin/BIRC5), (2) DNA repair regulators (e.g., ERCC6) and (3) efflux pump proteins (e.g., ABCG2/BCRP); mutations and/or deregulation of key (4) oncogenes (e.g., MDM2, KRAS) and/or (5) tumor suppressor genes (e.g., TP5/p53); and (6) deregulation of redox-sensitive regulators (e.g., HIF, NRF2). Foci of tumor cells that have these genetic alterations and/or deregulation possess survival advantages and are selected for survival during treatment. We will review the significance of survivin (BIRC5), XIAP, MCL-1, HIF1α, HIF2α, NRF2, MDM2, MDM4, TP5/p53, KRAS and AKT in treatment resistance as the potential therapeutic biomarkers and/or targets in RCC in parallel with our analized RCC-relevant TCGA genetic results from each of these gene/protein molecules. We then present our data to show the anticancer drug FL118 modulation of these protein targets and RCC cell/tumor growth. Finally, we include additional data to show a promising FL118 analogue (FL496) for treating the specialized type 2 papillary RCC.
Simultaneous determination of FL118 and W34 in rat Blood by LC-MS/MS: Application to pharmacokinetic studies
Biomed Chromatogr 2020 Nov;34(11):e4944.PMID:32639034DOI:10.1002/bmc.4944.
W34 is a prodrug of FL118, and it can be converted to FL118 via a hydrolysis reaction. In this report, a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method using a C18 column was validated and used for the simultaneous determination of W34 and FL118 in rat blood. A stepwise gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile was employed. The assays were linear over a concentration range of 0.50-50.0 ng/ml for both W34 and FL118. The accuracy of the validation method ranged from 89.74 to 98.94% for W34 and from 88.61 to 94.60% for FL118. The precision was within 7.15% for W34 and 9.63% for FL118. Extraction recoveries of W34 were 94.56-100.49 and 87.67-106.32% for FL118. No significant matrix effects for both W34 and FL118 were observed in blood. The assay has been successfully applied to biological samples obtained from a stability and pharmacokinetic study of W34 and FL118.
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