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Ginkgolide J

Catalog No.: GC38027

Ginkgolide J Chemical Structure

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Ginkgolide J is a main constituent of the non-flavone fraction of Ginkgo biloba with an IC50 range of 12-54 µM, has neuroprotective and anti neuronal apoptotic ability[1][2].

Ginkgolide J (100 μM) treatment reduces the apoptotic damage induced by serum deprivation (24h) or treatment with Staurosporine (200 nM, 24h) in cultured chick embryonic neurons[1].

[1]. Ahlemeyer B, et al. Pharmacological studies supporting the therapeutic use of Ginkgo biloba extract for Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2003 Jun; 36 Suppl 1:S8-14. [2]. Sylvia Pietri, et al. Synthesis and Biological Studies of a New Ginkgolide C Derivative: Evidence That the Cardioprotective Effect of Ginkgolides Is Unrelated to PAF Inhibition. DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH. 2001.54:191-201.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 107438-79-9 SDF
Canonical SMILES O[C@@]1([C@@H]2C)C3(O[C@@](OC4=O)([H])C5([C@H]4O)[C@H](C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)[C@@]6([H])OC3=O)[C@@]56C[C@]1([H])OC2=O
Formula C20H24O10 M.Wt 424.4
Solubility DMF: 10mg/mL,DMSO: 25mg/mL,DMSO:PBS (pH 7.2) (1:4): 0.2mg/mL,Ethanol: 10mg/mL Storage Store at -20°C
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

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Research Update

Ginkgolide J protects human synovial cells SW982 via suppression of p38‑dependent production of pro‑inflammatory mediators

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug;24(2):555.PMID:34080024DOI:10.3892/mmr.2021.12194.

Fibroblast‑like synoviocytes (FLS) in the synovial lining play a key role in the pathological process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which produce pro‑inflammatory mediators to perpetuate inflammation and proteases to contribute to cartilage destruction. Ginkgolide J (GJ) is a subclass of ginkgolides (GGs) that exhibits anti‑inflammatory activity. In the present study, the protective effect of GJ on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑treated human synovial cells SW982 and its related mechanisms were investigated using various methods, including ELISA, Griess assay, western blotting, immunofluorescence analysis and p38 kinase activity assay. The results revealed that GJ pretreatment significantly attenuated LPS‑induced excess production of pro‑inflammatory mediators in SW982 cells via suppression of tumor necrosis factor‑α/interleukin (IL)‑1β/IL‑18/NF‑κB/NLR family pyrin domain containing 3, prostaglandin E2/cyclooxygenase‑2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide signaling. Mechanistic studies revealed that p38 activation contributed to the LPS‑induced inflammatory response, and GJ pretreatment dose‑dependently attenuated p38 activation, indicating that the suppressive effect of GJ was achieved by targeting p38 signaling. These findings may contribute to the prevention and treatment of RA.

The neuroprotective mechanisms of ginkgolides and bilobalide in cerebral ischemic injury: a literature review

Mol Med 2019 Dec 21;25(1):57.PMID:31864312DOI:10.1186/s10020-019-0125-y.

The incidence and mortality of strokes have increased over the past three decades in China. Ischemic strokes can cause a sequence of detrimental events in patients, including increased permeability and dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier, brain edema, metabolic disturbance, endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, neuron death and apoptosis, and cognitive impairment. Thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and mechanical embolectomy with a retrievable stent are two recognized strategies to achieve reperfusion after a stroke. Nevertheless, rtPA has a narrow therapeutic timeframe, and mechanical embolectomy has limited rates of good neurological outcomes. EGb761 is a standardized and extensively studied extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The ginkgolides and bilobalide that constitute a critical part of EGb761 have demonstrated protective properties towards cerebral injury. Ginkgolides include Ginkgolide A (GA), Ginkgolide B (GB), Ginkgolide C (GC), Ginkgolide J (GJ), Ginkgolide K (GK), Ginkgolide L (GL), and Ginkgolide M (GM). This review seeks to elucidate the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of ginkgolides, especially GA and GB, and bilobalide in cerebral injury following ischemic strokes.

Three ginkgolide hydrates from Ginkgo biloba L.: ginkgolide A monohydrate, ginkgolide C sesquihydrate and Ginkgolide J dihydrate, all determined at 120 K

Acta Crystallogr C 2002 Mar;58(Pt 3):o195-8.PMID:11870327DOI:10.1107/s0108270102000689.

A low-temperature structure of ginkgolide A monohydrate, (1R,3S,3aS,4R,6aR,7aR,7bR,8S,10aS,11aS)-3-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-hexahydro-4,7b-dihydroxy-8-methyl-9H-1,7a-epoxymethano-1H,6aH-cyclopenta[c]furo[2,3-b]furo[3',2':3,4]cyclopenta[1,2-d]furan-5,9,12(4H)-trione monohydrate, C(20)H(24)O(9) x H(2)O, obtained from Mo K alpha data, is a factor of three more precise than the previous room-temperature determination. A refinement of the ginkgolide A monohydrate structure with Cu K alpha data has allowed the assignment of the absolute configuration of the series of compounds. Ginkgolide C sesquihydrate, (1S,2R,3S,3aS,4R,6aR,7aR,7bR,8S,10aS,11S,11aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-hexahydro-2,4,7b,11-tetrahydroxy-8-methyl-9H-1,7a-epoxymethano-1H,6aH-cyclopenta[c]furo[2,3-b]furo[3',2':3,4]cyclopenta[1,2-d]furan-5,9,12(4H)-trione sesquihydrate, C(20)H(24)O(11) x 1.5H(2)O, has two independent diterpene molecules, both of which exhibit intramolecular hydrogen bonding between OH groups. Ginkgolide J dihydrate, (1S,2R,3S,3aS,4R,6aR,7aR,7bR,8S,10aS,11aS)-3-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-hexahydro-2,4,7b-trihydroxy-8-methyl-9H-1,7a-epoxymethano-1H,6aH-cyclopenta[c]furo[2,3-b]furo[3',2':3,4]cyclopenta[1,2-d]furan-5,9,12(4H)-trione dihydrate, C(20)H(24)O(10) x 2H(2)O, has the same basic skeleton as the other ginkgolides, with its three OH groups having the same configurations as those in ginkgolide C. The conformations of the six five-membered rings are quite similar across ginkgolides A-C and J, except for the A and F rings of ginkgolide A.

Protection against beta-amyloid induced abnormal synaptic function and cell death by Ginkgolide J

Neurobiol Aging 2009 Feb;30(2):257-65.PMID:17640772DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2007.05.025.

A new Ginkgo biloba extract P8A (TTL), 70% enriched with terpene trilactones, prevents A beta(1-42) induced inhibition of long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampal slices. This neuroprotective effect is attributed in large part to Ginkgolide J that completely replicates the effect of the extract. Ginkgolide J is also capable of inhibiting cell death of rodent hippocampal neurons caused by A beta(1-42). This beneficial and multi-faceted mode of action of the ginkgolide makes it a new and promising lead in designing therapies against Alzheimer's disease.

Pharmacological studies supporting the therapeutic use of Ginkgo biloba extract for Alzheimer's disease

Pharmacopsychiatry 2003 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S8-14.PMID:13130383DOI:10.1055/s-2003-40454.

The standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(definition see editorial) has been shown to produce neuroprotective effects in different in vivo and in vitro models. Since EGb 761 is a complex mixture containing flavonoid glycosides, terpene lactones (non-flavone fraction) and various other constituents, the question arises as to which of these compounds mediates the protective activity of EGb 761. Previous studies have demonstrated that the non-flavone fraction was responsible for the antihypoxic activity of EGb 761. Thus, we examined the neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic ability of the main constituents of the non-flavone fraction, the ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide. In focal cerebral ischemia models, the administration of bilobalide (5-20 mg/kg, s. c.) 60 min before ischemia dose-dependently reduced the infarct area in mouse brain and the infarct volume in rat brain 2 days after the onset of the injury. 30 minutes of pretreatment with ginkgolide A (50 mg/kg, s. c.) and ginkgolide B (100 mg/kg, s. c.) reduced the infarct area in the mouse model of focal ischemia. In primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and astrocytes from neonatal rats, ginkgolide B (1 microM) and bilobalide (10 microM) protected the neurons against damage caused by glutamate (1 mM, 1 h) as evaluated by trypan blue staining. In addition, bilobalide (0.1 microM) was able to increase the viability of cultured neurons from chick embryo telencepalon when exposed to cyanide (1 mM, 1h). Furthermore, we attempted to find out whether ginkgolides A, B, and J and bilobalide were also able to inhibit neuronal apoptosis (determined by nuclear staining with Hoechst 33 258 and TUNEL-staining). Ginkgolide B (10 microM), Ginkgolide J (100 microM) and bilobalide (1 microM) reduced the apoptotic damage induced by serum deprivation (24h) or treatment with staurosporine (200 nM, 24h) in cultured chick embryonic neurons. Bilobalide (100 microM) rescued cultured rat hippocampal neurons from apoptosis caused by serum deprivation (24h), whereas ginkgolide B (100 microM) and bilobalide (100 microM) reduced apoptotic damage induced by staurosporine (300 nM, 24h). Ginkgolide A failed to affect apoptotic damage neither in serum-deprived nor in staurosporine-treated neurons. The results suggest that some of the constituents of the non-flavone fraction of EGb 761 possess neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic capacity, and that bilobalide is the most potent one. In contrast, ginkgolic acids (100-500 microM) induced neuronal death, which showed features of apoptosis as well as of necrosis, but these constituents were removed from EGb 761 below an amount of 0.0005 %. Taking together, there is experimental evidence for a neuroprotective effect of EGb 761 that agrees with clinical studies showing the efficacy of an oral treatment in patients with mild and moderate dementia.


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