Home>>Signaling Pathways>> Microbiology & Virology>> Bacterial>>Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate

Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate

Catalog No.: GC17427

Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate (Geneticin sulfate), is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate Chemical Structure

Size Price Stock Qty
In stock
In stock

Customer Reviews

Based on customer reviews.

Tel: (626) 353-8530 Email: sales@glpbio.com

Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.

Product Citations

Product Documents

Quality Control & SDS

View current batch:


Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

Sheep skin fibroblasts, SSFs

Preparation Method

The SSFs cultured in vitro were treated with different concentrations of single antibiotic Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate. After 12 days of treatment, the SSFs were digested, and the number of dead and alive cells was counted after placental blue staining to determine the lowest lethal dose of Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate leading to the death of all SSFs.

Reaction Conditions

100-200ug/ml Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate for 1 day


Treatment with 100 µg/mL Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate for 12 days did not lead to the death of all SSFs, but still (44.7 0.05)% of SSFs survived.Continuous treatment with 200 µg/mL Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate for 12 days can lead to the death of all SSFs. Therefore, the minimum lethal concentration of Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate leading to the death of SSFs is 200 µg/mL.


[1]: Wu Xian, JING Qian-ge, et,al.Study on the resistance of sheep skin fibroblasts to G418 and Blasticidin S [J].Genomics and applied biology,2019,38(03):1006-1011.


Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate is a class of aminoglycoside antibiotics, whose structure is similar to neomycin kanamycin. It can interfere with the function of 80S ribosomes in eukaryotic cells, thereby blocking protein synthesis and leading to eukaryotic cell death[1,4]. Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate from 1 to 300 μg/ml is often used for clonal selection in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Antibiotic resistance assay of clinically isolated bacterial strains found that all strains carrying 3' -o-aminoglycoside phosphotransferases were tolerant to Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate [2].

Treatment with 100 µg/mL Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate for 12 days did not lead to the death of all SSFs, but still 44.7% of SSFs survived. Continuous treatment with 200 µg/mL Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate for 12 days can lead to the death of all SSFs. Therefore, the minimum lethal concentration of Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate leading to the death of SSFs is 200 µg/mL[5]. Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate has antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate can prevent cytopaplasia effect (CPE) caused by DENV-2 infection of BHK cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an EC50 value of 3μg/ml[3].

In vivo, Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate destabilizes mRNAs broadly, in that the majority of mRNAs in mESCs have reduced stability when mESCs are treated with Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate. The mRNAs with half-lives that are most reduced by treatment with Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate are enriched for select optimal codons, containing G/C at the wobble position[7].The expression of antioxidant stress kinase-related genes and apoptotic genes in donor cells treated with different concentrations of Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate significantly changed, but the DNA methylation level did not change.The in vitro development efficiency of nuclear transfer embryos from Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate-treated donor cells was significantly lower than that of controls[6].

[1]: Bar-Nun S, Shneyour Y, et,al. G-418, an elongation inhibitor of 80 S ribosomes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1983 Oct 13;741(1):123-7. doi: 10.1016/0167-4781(83)90018-0. PMID: 6193810.
[2]: Davies J, Jimenez A. A new selective agent for eukaryotic cloning vectors. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1980 Sep;29(5 Suppl):1089-92. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1980.29.1089. PMID: 7001938.
[3]: Zhang XG, Mason PW, et,al. Antiviral activity of geneticin against dengue virus. Antiviral Res. 2009 Jul;83(1):21-7. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.02.204. Epub 2009 Mar 11. PMID: 19501253; PMCID: PMC2694137.
[4]: Chen B., Shi X.Y., et,al. 2012, Cytoplasm vacuolization of fibroblasts during purification of Schwann cells by geneticin (G418): An optical microscope observation and analysis, Zhongguo Zhuzhi Gongcheng Yanjiu (Journal of Clinical Rehabilitative Tissue Engineering Research), 16 (14): 2593-2596
[5]: Wu Xian, JING Qian-ge, et,al. Study on the resistance of sheep skin fibroblasts to G418 and Blasticidin S [J].Genomics and applied biology,2019,38(03):1006-1011.
[6]: Li Jia-qi, Li Zi-Cong, et,al. Effects of G418 treatment on development efficiency of porcine cloned embryos in vitro [J]. Journal of south China agricultural university,2016,37(05):13-18.
[7]: Durmaz YT, Shatadal A, et,al. Geneticin reduces mRNA stability. PLoS One. 2022 Jul 28;17(7):e0272058. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0272058. PMID: 35901009; PMCID: PMC9333311.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 108321-42-2 SDF
Synonyms Antibiotic G418
Chemical Name 2-[4,6-diamino-3-[3-amino-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(1-hydroxyethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-2-hydroxycyclohexyl]oxy-5-methyl-4-(methylamino)oxane-3,5-diol;sulfuric acid
Canonical SMILES CC(C1C(C(C(C(O1)OC2C(CC(C(C2O)OC3C(C(C(CO3)(C)O)NC)O)N)N)N)O)O)O.OS(=O)(=O)O.OS(=O)(=O)O
Formula C20H40N4O10.2H2SO4 M.Wt 692.71
Solubility ≥ 240.4 mg/ml in Water Storage Store at -20°C, stored under nitrogen
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

mg/kg g μL

Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (This is only the calculator, not formulation. Please contact us first if there is no in vivo formulation at the solubility Section.)

% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O

Calculation results:

Working concentration: mg/ml;

Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.
3. All of the above co-solvents are available for purchase on the GlpBio website.

  • Molarity Calculator

  • Dilution Calculator

**When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and MSDS / CoA (available online).


Research Update

Colonic organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells for modeling colorectal cancer and drug testing

With the goal of modeling human disease of the large intestine, we sought to develop an effective protocol for deriving colonic organoids (COs) from differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Extensive gene and immunohistochemical profiling confirmed that the derived COs represent colon rather than small intestine, containing stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and the expected spectrum of differentiated cells, including goblet and endocrine cells. We applied this strategy to iPSCs derived from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP-iPSCs) harboring germline mutations in the WNT-signaling-pathway-regulator gene encoding APC, and we generated COs that exhibit enhanced WNT activity and increased epithelial cell proliferation, which we used as a platform for drug testing. Two potential compounds, XAV939 and rapamycin, decreased proliferation in FAP-COs, but also affected cell proliferation in wild-type COs, which thus limits their therapeutic application. By contrast, we found that geneticin, a ribosome-binding antibiotic with translational 'read-through' activity, efficiently targeted abnormal WNT activity and restored normal proliferation specifically in APC-mutant FAP-COs. These studies provide an efficient strategy for deriving human COs, which can be used in disease modeling and drug discovery for colorectal disease.

Efficient selection for high-expression transfectants with a novel eukaryotic vector

We have developed a new expression vector which allows efficient selection for transfectants that express foreign genes at high levels. The vector is composed of a ubiquitously strong promoter based on the beta-actin promoter, a 69% subregion of the bovine papilloma virus genome, and a mutant neomycin phosphotransferase II-encoding gene driven by a weak promoter, which confers only marginal resistance to G418. Thus, high concentrations of G418 (approx. 800 micrograms/ml) effectively select for transfectants containing a high vector copy number (greater than 300). We tested this system by producing human interleukin-2 (IL-2) in L cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and the results showed that high concentrations of G418 efficiently yielded L cell and CHO cell transfectants stably producing IL-2 at levels comparable with those previously attained using gene amplification. The vector sequences were found to have integrated into the host chromosome, and were stably maintained in the transfectants for several months.

Geneticin reduces mRNA stability

Messenger RNA (mRNA) translation can lead to higher rates of mRNA decay, suggesting the ribosome plays a role in mRNA destruction. Furthermore, mRNA features, such as codon identities, which are directly probed by the ribosome, correlate with mRNA decay rates. Many amino acids are encoded by synonymous codons, some of which are decoded by more abundant tRNAs leading to more optimal translation and increased mRNA stability. Variable translation rates for synonymous codons can lead to ribosomal collisions as ribosomes transit regions with suboptimal codons, and ribosomal collisions can promote mRNA decay. In addition to different translation rates, the presence of certain codons can also lead to higher or lower rates of amino acid misincorporation which could potentially lead to protein misfolding if a substituted amino acid fails to make critical contacts in a structure. Here, we test whether Geneticin-G418, an aminoglycoside antibiotic known to promote amino acid misincorporation-affects mRNA stability. We observe that G418 decreases firefly luciferase mRNA stability in an in vitro translation system and also reduces mRNA stability in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). G418-sensitive mRNAs are enriched for certain optimal codons that contain G or C in the wobble position, arguing that G418 blunts the stabilizing effects of codon optimality.

Optimizing Lipofectamine LTX Complex and G-418 Concentration for Improvement of Transfection Efficiency in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Conventional cancer therapies, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, are not tumor site-specific and have cytotoxic and harmful side effects for normal cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), due to their tumor-tropism migration property, are a promising alternative to deliver and produce antitumor agents. However, MSCs are difficult-to-transfect cells, and introducing the exogenous therapeutic gene into MSCs is challenging yet needs improvement. Transfection using chemical reagents, including Lipofectamine, is more convenient and less cytotoxic compared with different methods of introducing exogenous DNA into MSCs. Nonetheless, the major limitation of Lipofectamine is low transfection efficiency in MSCs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and suggest the optimum quantities of lipoplex components to enhance the transfection efficiency of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hASCs). Finding the best transgene expression time point and the optimum concentration of G-418 for antibiotic-based selection was another goal of this study. hASCs were transfected in a series of experiments with altering the quantities of Lipofectamine LTX? (Lip-LTX), the related "PLUS" reagent, and a plasmid DNA (pDNA) expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). After transfection, the percentage of eGFP-expressing cells was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy and ImageJ software in 12-hour intervals for 48 hours. Also, the viability of hASCs exposed to different concentrations of G-418 was measured using an MTT assay. The results demonstrated that a combination of 2 ?L Lip-LTX, 0.75 ?L of its "PLUS" reagent, and 0.75 g pDNA (6484 bp) improve the transfection efficiency of hASCs (23.75%), and the best period for evaluation of fluorescence for these cells is 12 to 24h post-transfection. Also, the optimum concentration of G-418 for antibiotic-based selection of hASCs was 0.25mg/mL. In conclusion, this study indicates that the setting up of optimized quantities of lipoplex components and the golden time of evaluation for transgene expression could increase the possibility of transgene expression in hASCs before beginning research and clinical application. Also, the definition of optimal dose of selection antibiotic for purification of transfected hASCs seems to be necessary for maximum transgene expression effects in the cell population.

A breakthrough in readthrough? Could geneticin lead the way to effective treatment for cystinosis nonsense mutations?


Review for Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate

Average Rating: 5 ★★★★★ (Based on Reviews and 21 reference(s) in Google Scholar.)

5 Star
4 Star
3 Star
2 Star
1 Star
Review for Geneticin, G-418 Sulfate

GLPBIO products are for RESEARCH USE ONLY. Please make sure your review or question is research based.

Required fields are marked with *

You may receive emails regarding this submission. Any emails will include the ability to opt-out of future communications.