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Luteinizing hormone (human)

Catalog No.: GC39581

Luteinizing hormone (human), a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone produced by the pituitary gland (LH), plays key roles in human reproduction.

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Luteinizing hormone (human) Chemical Structure

Cas No.:39341-83-8

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Luteinizing hormone (human), a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone produced by the pituitary gland (LH), plays key roles in human reproduction[1].

[1]. Laura Riccetti, et al. Human Luteinizing Hormone and Chorionic Gonadotropin Display Biased Agonism at the LH and LH/CG Receptors. Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 19;7(1):940.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 39341-83-8 SDF
Formula M.Wt
Solubility <1 mg/mL in water Storage Store at -20°C
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Research Update

Luteinizing hormone stimulates the expression of amphiregulin in human theca cells

J Ovarian Res 2022 Dec 7;15(1):129.PMID:36476625DOI:10.1186/s13048-022-01062-5.

Background: Luteinizing hormone (LH) can stimulate mural granulosa cells to produce Amphiregulin (AREG), which can induce the resumption of meiosis in oocytes. Theca cells are present in the outer layer of follicles, providing communication with the pituitary axis through the established vascular system around the follicle. As LH target cells, it is unknown whether theca cells can produce AREG after LH stimulation. Methods: Primary cultured human theca cells were treated with LH (with or without the inhibitor of PKA, H89), or agonists of adenylate cyclase (forskolin or db-cAMP). The mRNA and protein levels of AREG were evaluated by RT-qPCR, immunochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blotting, and ELISA. Results: Immunohistochemistry of normal ovarian tissue obtained in the early-mid follicle phase showed that AREG expression was absent in both the theca layer and the granulosa cell layer of antral follicles. Double immunofluorescent staining revealed colocalization of AREG and CYP17A1 in human theca cells and colocalization of FSHR and AREG in human granulosa cells isolated from follicular fluid collected during IVF/ICSI after hCG trigger. LH significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of AREG in human theca cells and the concentration of AREG in the culture medium. Forskolin and db-cAMP, activators of the cAMP/PKA signalling pathway, also significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of AREG in human theca cells and the concentration of AREG in the culture medium. H89 antagonized the stimulating effect of LH on AREG expression in human theca cells. In addition, the concentration of AREG was lower in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) follicular fluid than in normal follicular fluid. The mRNA levels of AREG were significantly lower in PCOS granulosa cells and theca cells than in normal granulosa cells and theca cells. Conclusion: LH can stimulate the expression of AREG in human theca cells, and the adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA cascade may mediate this process. Expression of AREG is decreased in PCOS theca cells compared to normal theca cells, with or without LH stimulation.

Recent progress in Luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone research

Mol Hum Reprod 2009 Nov;15(11):703-11.PMID:19710244DOI:10.1093/molehr/gap067.

The role of Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (hCG) in the regulation of normal reproductive functions in males and females is quite well established. Besides the use of hCG in the development of diagnostic immunoassays, it has been successfully used in the induction of final follicular maturation and ovulation in the assisted reproductive technologies. The basic and clinical research on the nongonadal actions of LH/hCG in the recent years has extended the potential of using these hormones in several clinical indications. Hereby we will analyze the advances in the LH/hCG research (briefly emphasizing the nongonadal research), which has the potential for multiple novel therapies in reproductive and the other areas of medicine.

Recombinant human follicular stimulating hormone and recombinant human Luteinizing hormone in a 2:1 ratio combination. Pharmacological characteristics and clinical applications

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2010 Jun;10(6):1001-9.PMID:20415593DOI:10.1517/14712598.2010.485607.

Importance of the field: A new fixed combination of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) and recombinant human Luteinizing hormone (r-hLH) at a 2:1 ratio has been recently developed to induce ovulation in patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Whether or not this compound is useful for controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization is still a matter of debate. Areas covered in this review: Description of pharmacological and clinical aspects of this new product, through the analysis of the Phase I, II and II trials and post-marketing clinical randomized trials, performed since the initial assays in 1998 to nowadays. What the reader will gain: After reading this review the reader will understand the pharmacological aspects of this new compound, in terms of efficacy and safety, and will have an update of the potential role of r-LH administration in controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Take home message: The 2:1 combination of r-hFSH and r-hLH has been seen as an optimum preparation in terms of safety and clinical efficacy in hypogonatrophic hypogonadism patients. Its use in ovarian stimulation for IVF remains controversial, as the target population that may receive a benefit of it is not well defined.

[human Luteinizing hormone (hLH)]

Postepy Hig Med Dosw 1994;48(5):491-504.PMID:7638098doi

Heterodimeric composition and amino acid sequence of hLH is reviewed. The hormone isoforms and methods of their assay are summarized. Releasing of the hormone, its control by synthetic antagonists and agonists and their significance for therapy are described. Structure and function of hLH receptor are presented.

Luteinizing hormone estimation

Endocr Res 2004 Feb;30(1):1-17.PMID:15098915DOI:10.1081/erc-120029888.

Luteinizing hormone (LH) is an important hormone of the reproductive system, which has found application in diagnosis and therapeutic medicine. It plays a vital role in the development and functioning of the reproductive system. Determination of LH concentration is important for detection of dysfunction of the pituitary-ovarian axis, diagnosis of reproductive disorders, monitoring of antifertility programmes and in therapeutic preparations. On the basis of heterogeneity and various biological effects served by the hormone, different assay systems have been developed for its estimation. Initially, LH was quantified on the basis of in vivo and in vitro endocrine activity. However, with the advancement in biotechnology, various immunoassays have been designed for performing most of the physiological and clinical studies on serum LH. The immunoassays offer improvement in sensitivity, precision and convenience over bioassays. However, these immunoassays have their own limitations and results obtained in different laboratories are often not comparable. This review makes an attempt to enumerate and compare various assay methods used in the serum LH measurement in varied clinical conditions.


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