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Trichostatin A (TSA)

Catalog No.: GC15526

Trichostatin A (TSA) (TSA) is a potent and specific inhibitor of HDAC class I/II, with an IC50 value of 1.8 nM for HDAC.

Trichostatin A (TSA) Chemical Structure

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10mM (in 1mL DMSO)
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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.

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Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

Human breast cancer cell line

Preparation Method

Trichostatin A (TSA) was added to the cell culture medium.

Reaction Conditions

10 µM of Trichostatin A (TSA) for 96 h


Trichostatin A (TSA) inhibited the proliferation of 8 breast cancer cell lines, with an average IC50 value of 124.4±120.4 nM. Trichostatin A (TSA) treatment resulted in significant hyperacetylation of histone H4.

Animal experiment [2]:

Animal models

Nmu-induced tumor xenografts of virgin female inbred (Ludwig/Wistar/Olac) rats

Preparation Method

Sixteen animals were injected Trichostatin A (TSA) at a daily dose of 500 microg/kg for 4 weeks

Dosage form

500 µg/kg/day Trichostatin A (TSA), 4 weeks; injected


Trichostatin A (TSA) had pronounced antitumor activity in vivo when administered to 16 animals at a dose of 500 microg/kg by injection daily for 4 weeks compared with 14 control animals. Furthermore, Trichostatin A (TSA) did not cause any measurable toxicity in doses of up to 5 mg/kg by injection. TSA has significant antitumor activity in vivo The antitumor activity of TSA is attributed to differentiation induction


[1]: Vigushin DM, Ali S, et,al. Trichostatin A is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with potent antitumor activity against breast cancer in vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Apr;7(4):971-6. PMID: 11309348.


Trichostatin A (TSA) is A potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and an antifungal antibiotic with an IC50 value of 1.8 nM for HDAC[1], which has the properties of inhibiting cell growth and inducing cell differentiation.

Trichostatin A (TSA) can arrest cells in G1 and G2 phases, induce cell differentiation, and restore transformed morphology of cultured cells. Trichostatin A (TSA) inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells in human breast cancer cell linesand resulted in hyperacetylation of histone H4[1]. Trichostatin A (TSA) promotes apoptosis and radiation-induced DNA damage in mitotic G2 gap 2 (G2/M) -arrested cells. Trichostatin A (TSA) may directly participate in DNA damage in esophageal cancer cells by reducing the acetylation of growth-associated genomic protein H3[2].Pre-treatment of RLE-6TN cells with Trichostatin A (TSA) inhibited radiation-induced EMT-like morphological alterations including elevated protein level of α-SMA and Snail, reduction of E-cadherin expression, enhanced phosphorylation of GSK3β and ERK1/2, increased generation of ROS[3].The invasive and migratory abilities of MCF-7 cells were suppressed significantly upon treatment with Trichostatin A (TSA). Treatment with Trichostatin A (TSA) led to an increased expression level of E-cadherin, and decreased expression of vimentin and, in MCF-7 cells[4]. Trichostatin A (TSA) enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells, apoptotic cell death induced by radiation was enhanced by Trichostatin A (TSA) treatment. Trichostatin A (TSA) also induced autophagic response in colon cancer cells, while autophagy inhibition led to cell apoptosis and enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells[5].

Trichostatin A (TSA) had pronounced antitumor activity in vivo when administered to 16 animals at a dose of 500 microg/kg by injection daily for 4 weeks compared with 14 control animals. Furthermore, Trichostatin A (TSA) did not cause any measurable toxicity in doses of up to 5 mg/kg by injection. Trichostatin A (TSA) has significant antitumor activity in vivo The antitumor activity of Trichostatin A (TSA) is attributed to differentiation induction[1].In porcine SCNT embryos,Chaetocin, Trichostatin A (TSA), and the combination significantly increased the cleavage and blastocyst formation rate, hatching/hatched blastocyst rate, and cell numbers and survival rate. The combined treatment improved the rate of development to blastocysts more so than chaetocin or Trichostatin A (TSA) alone[6].This decreased emotionality observed in stress-maladaptive mice was significantly recovered by chronic treatment with Trichostatin A (TSA) 2 h before daily exposure to restraint stress, which confirmed the development of stress adaptation. HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) may have a beneficial effect on stress adaptation by affecting 5-HT neural function in the brain and alleviate the emotional abnormality under conditions of excessive stress[7].

[1]: Vigushin DM, Ali S, et,al. Trichostatin A is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with potent antitumor activity against breast cancer in vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Apr;7(4):971-6. PMID: 11309348.
[2]: Wang S, Song M, et,al. Trichostatin A enhances radiosensitivity and radiation-induced DNA damage of esophageal cancer cells. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2021 Oct;12(5):1985-1995. doi: 10.21037/jgo-21-560. PMID: 34790366; PMCID: PMC8576220.
[3]: Nagarajan D, Wang L, et,al. Trichostatin A inhibits radiation-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the alveolar epithelial cells. Oncotarget. 2017 Oct 9;8(60):101745-101759. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.21664. PMID: 29254201; PMCID: PMC5731911.
[4]: Wang X, Chen S, et,al. Trichostatin A reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and attenuates invasion and migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Exp Ther Med. 2020 Mar;19(3):1687-1694. doi: 10.3892/etm.2020.8422. Epub 2020 Jan 3. PMID: 32104221; PMCID: PMC7027139.
[5]: He G, Wang Y, et,al. Inhibition of autophagy induced by TSA sensitizes colon cancer cell to radiation. Tumour Biol. 2014 Feb;35(2):1003-11. doi: 10.1007/s13277-013-1134-z. PMID: 24122231.
[6]: Jeong PS, Yang HJ, et,al. Combined Chaetocin/Trichostatin A Treatment Improves the Epigenetic Modification and Developmental Competence of Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 Oct 6;9:709574. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2021.709574. PMID: 34692674; PMCID: PMC8526721.
[7]: Kimijima H, Miyagawa K, et,al. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, alleviates the emotional abnormality induced by maladaptation to stress in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2022 Jan 1;766:136340. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136340. Epub 2021 Nov 10. PMID: 34774702.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 58880-19-6 SDF
Synonyms Trichostatin A,TSA
Chemical Name (2E,4E,6R)-7-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-N-hydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-7-oxohepta-2,4-dienamide
Canonical SMILES CC(C=C(C)C=CC(=O)NO)C(=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)N(C)C
Formula C17H22N2O3 M.Wt 302.37
Solubility ≥ 15.12mg/mL in DMSO, ≥ 16.56 mg/mL in EtOH with ultrasonic Storage Desiccate at -20°C
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

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Research Update

HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

Aging (Albany NY)2021 Jul 7;13(13):17489-17498.PMID: 34232916DOI: 10.18632/aging.203238

Background and purpose: Obesity is becoming a major global health issue and is mainly induced by the accumulation of adipose tissues mediated by adipogenesis, which is reported to be regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ¦à(PPAR¦é and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein ¦Á (C/EBP¦Á). Trichostatin A (TSA) is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) that was recently reported to exert multiple pharmacological functions. The present study will investigate the inhibitory effect of TSA on adipogenesis, as well as the underlying mechanism.
Methods: The adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells was induced by stimulation with a differentiation cocktail (DMI) medium for 8 days. MTT assay was used to measure the cell viability and Oil Red O staining was used to evaluate the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The total level of triglyceride and released glycerol were detected to evaluate the lipolysis during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. The expression levels of Leptin, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1C) were determined by qRT-PCR. qRT-PCR assay was utilized to detect the expression levels of PPAR¦àand C/EBP¦Á in 3T3-L1 cells. A high-fat diet (HFD) was used to construct an obese mice model, followed by the treatment with TSA. HE staining was conducted to evaluate the pathological state of adipose tissues. Body weights and the weights of adipose tissues were recorded to evaluate the anti-obesity property of TSA.
Results: Firstly, the promoted lipid accumulation induced by DMI incubation was significantly reversed by the treatment with TSA in a dose-dependent manner. The elevated expression levels of Leptin, FABP4, SREBP1C, PPAR¦ì and C/EBP¦Á induced by the stimulation with DMI incubation were dramatically inhibited by the introduction of TSA, accompanied by the upregulation of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK). Secondly, the inhibitory effect of TSA against the expression level of PPAR¦àand lipid accumulation was greatly abolished by an AMPK inhibitor. Lastly, the increased body weights and visceral adipocyte tissue weight, as well as the enlarged size of adipocytes induced by HFD were pronouncedly reversed by the administration of TSA.
Conclusion: TSA inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by activating the AMPK pathway.

Differential effects of trichostatin A on mouse embryogenesis and development

Reproduction2021 Jun 7;162(1):83-94.PMID: 33983895DOI: 10.1530/REP-21-0020

Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, can significantly improve the reprogramming efficiency of somatic cells. However, whether TSA has a detrimental effect on other kinds of embryos is largely unknown because of the lack of integrated analysis of the TSA effect on natural fertilized embryos. To investigate the effect of TSA on mouse embryo development, we analyzed preimplantation and post-implantation development of in vivo, in vitro fertilized, and parthenogenetic embryos treated with TSA at different concentrations and durations. In vivo fertilized embryos appeared to be the most sensitive to TSA treatment among the three groups, and the blastocyst formation rate decreased sharply as TSA concentration and treatment time increased. TSA treatment also reduced the livebirth rate for in vivo fertilized embryos from 56.59 to 38.33% but did not significantly affect postnatal biological functions such as the pups' reproductive performance and their ability for spatial learning and memory. Further analysis indicated that the acetylation level of H3K9 and H4K5 was enhanced by TSA treatment at low concentrations, while DNA methylation appeared to be also disturbed by TSA treatment only at high concentration. Thus, our data indicates that TSA has different effects on preimplantation embryonic development depending on the nature of the embryo's reproductive origin, the TSA concentration and treatment time, whereas the effect of TSA at the indicated concentration on postnatal function was minor.

Trichostatin A alleviated ovarian tissue damage caused by cigarette smoke exposure

Reprod Toxicol2020 Apr;93:89-98.PMID: 31987896DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2020.01.006

Cigarette smoke (CS) has a negative impact on women's health and fertility. Studies have shown that histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) were involved in oocyte development. However, the roles of HDAC1/2 in ovarian toxicity caused by CS exposure and the therapeutic potential of trichostatin A (TSA, a HDAC inhibitor) for ovarian tissue damage have not been investigated. In this study, Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS from six cigarettes mixed with indoor air for 120 min (one cigarette for 20 min) using a whole-body mainstream smoke exposure system twice daily for 30 days. TSA (0.6 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally into mice in the Control + TSA group and CS + TSA group every two days for 30 days. We found that exposure to CS resulted in ovarian tissue damage and HDAC1/2 over-expression. TSA alleviated the structural changes of ovarian tissue induced by smoking and prevented the activation of HDAC1/2. Exposure to CS caused autophagy inhibition and pyroptosis activation. TSA treatment restored the expression of autophagy-associated proteins and decreased the levels of pyroptosis-related proteins induced by CS exposure. The TSA effect may be mediated by inhibition of HDAC1/2 involved in autophagy and pyroptosis process.

Trichostatin A ameliorates Alzheimer's disease-related pathology and cognitive deficits by increasing albumin expression and A¦ clearance in APP/PS1 mice

Alzheimers Res Ther2021 Jan 4;13(1):7.PMID: 33397436DOI: 10.1186/s13195-020-00746-8

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an intractable neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly population, currently lacking a cure. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, showed some neuroprotective roles, but its pathology-improvement effects in AD are still uncertain, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to examine the anti-AD effects of TSA, particularly investigating its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms.
Methods: Novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests were used to evaluate the memory-ameliorating effects of TSA in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Immunofluorescence, Western blotting, Simoa assay, and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to examine the pathology-improvement effects of TSA. Microglial activity was assessed by Western blotting and transwell migration assay. Protein-protein interactions were analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation and LC-MS/MS.
Results: TSA treatment not only reduced amyloid ¦ (A¦© plaques and soluble A¦ oligomers in the brain, but also effectively improved learning and memory behaviors of APP/PS1 mice. In vitro study suggested that the improvement of A¦ pathology by TSA was attributed to the enhancement of A¦ clearance, mainly by the phagocytosis of microglia, and the endocytosis and transport of microvascular endothelial cells. Notably, a meaningful discovery in the study was that TSA dramatically upregulated the expression level of albumin in cell culture, by which TSA inhibited A¦ aggregation and promoted the phagocytosis of A¦ oligomers.
Conclusions: These findings provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of AD and suggest TSA as a novel promising candidate for the AD treatment.

Trichostatin A mitigates radiation-induced teratogenesis in C57Bl/6 mice

Mutagenesis2021 Aug 27;36(4):303-309.PMID: 34086940DOI: 10.1093/mutage/geab018

Radiation exposure in utero is known to lead to serious concerns to both the mother and children, including developmental anomalies in the children. In the recent past, trichostatin A, an HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor and epigenetic modifier, has been shown to mitigate radiation-induced anomalies in the male reproductive system of C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to evaluate the mitigating effects of trichostatin A (TSA) against radiation-induced developmental anomalies in mice. Foetuses of in utero whole-body gamma-irradiated mice during the active organogenesis period were examined for developmental anomalies at 8.5 and 18.5 days of gestation. In utero radiation exposure caused developmental anomalies like microcephaly, microphthalmia, gastroschisis and kinky tail besides prenatal mortality. TSA administration post-irradiation was observed to reduce 50% of prenatal mortality at E18.5 by reducing congenital and developmental anomalies. Observation of such results could be corroborated with the HDAC inhibitory potential of TSA knowing that developmental anomalies may have epigenetic origin. TSA, therefore, can be considered as a potential radiomitigator.


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