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4-Octyl Itaconate

Catalog No.GC31648

4-Octyl Itaconate Chemical Structure

4-Octyl Itaconate (4-OI) is a cell-permeable itaconate derivative. Itaconate and 4-Octyl Itaconate had similar thiol reactivity, making 4-Octyl Itaconate a suitable itaconate surrogate to study its biological function.

Size Price Stock Qty
10mM*1mLinDMSO
$57.00
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50mg
$52.00
In stock
100mg
$84.00
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200mg
$147.00
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500mg
$308.00
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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.

Product Documents

Quality Control & SDS

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Protocol

Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

C28/I2 chondrocytes

Preparation Method

Cells were stimulated with 10 ng/mL interleukin 1β(IL-1β) for 24 h. CQ (50 μM) was incubated with chondrocytes for 48 h in the CQ group, chondrocytes were pretreated with 4-Octyl Itaconate (100 μM) for 48 h followed by treatment with IL-1β (1 ng/mL) for 24 h in the IL-1β + 4-Octyl Itaconate group, and chondrocytes were pretreated with 4-Octyl Itaconate (100 μM) for 48 h followed by treatment with CQ (50 μM) for 48 h in the CQ + 4-Octyl Itaconate group. The control group was untreated chondrocytes cultured in regular medium.

Reaction Conditions

100μM for 48 hours

Applications

IL-1β (interleukin 1β) treatment significantly inhibited the growth of chondrocytes, but the cell growth of chondrocytes was restored after the pretreatment of 4-Octyl Itaconate. The IL-1β induces chondrocyte apoptosis and participates in the pathogenesis of OA (Osteoarthritis), 4-Octyl Itaconate protected chondrocytes from IL-1β-induced apoptosis.

Animal experiment [2]:

Animal models

Male C57BL/6 mice aged 8–10-weeks-old

Preparation Method

The control group (rats were shamoperated and given saline solution on the first day of every week from the 4th to the12th week following surgery, n = 6), the OA group (subjected to DMM, 100 μLof normal saline treatment injected at the same as in the control group, n = 6), and the OA + OI group (subjected to DMM, 100 μL of OI (100 μM) injected at the same as in the control group, n = 6).

Dosage form

Inject 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg

Applications

The histopathology indicated that 4-Octyl Itaconate reduced the LPS-induced pulmonary edema, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration. The inflammation scores of 4-Octyl Itaconate intervention groups were lower than those of the ALI group. 4-Octyl Itaconate could alleviate acute lung tissue injury induced by lipopolysaccharide.

References:

[1]. X. Pan, H. Shan, J. Bai et al. Four-octyl itaconate improves osteoarthritis by enhancing autophagy in chondrocytes via PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway inhibition. Communications Biology, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 641, 2022.

[2]. Li, Y., Chen, X., Zhang, H., et al. 4-Octyl Itaconate Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation. Dddt 14, 5547–5558. 2020. doi:10.2147/DDDT.S280922

Background

4-Octyl Itaconate (4-OI) is a cell-permeable itaconate derivative. Itaconate and 4-Octyl Itaconate had similar thiol reactivity, making 4-Octyl Itaconate a suitable itaconate surrogate to study its biological function. 4-Octyl Itaconate is reported to alkylate cysteine residues on kelchlike ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and then activate nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. [1]. 4-Octyl Itaconate can halt the progress of various diseases, including ischemiareperfusion injury, osteoclast-related diseases, and renal fibrosis, by reducing oxidative stress and modifying the immune response of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [2].

The inhibitory effect of 4-octyl itaconate extends to the replication of several other pathogenic viruses including Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and-2, Vaccinia virus, and Zika virus through a type I interferon (IFN)- independent mechanism. In addition, 4-Octyl Itaconate limit host inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV2 infection [3].

Treat Vero cells with 4-octyl itaconate enerated before infection with SARS-CoV2 resulted in a 102–104 eduction in SARS-CoV2 RNA levels in a dose dependent manner, while not affecting cell viability, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. The antiviral effect of 4-Octyl Itaconate was also demonstrated in the lung cancer cell line Calu-3, where SARS-CoV2 RNA levels were reduced by >2-logs, while release of progeny virus was reduced by >6-logs. 4-Octyl Itaconate effect SARSCoV2 in primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures, also, 4-Octyl Itaconate treatment significantly reduced viral RNA levels. The antiviral effect of 4-Octyl Itaconate was reproduced using a different SARS-CoV-2 isolate [3].

4-Octyl Itaconate (50 mg/ kg) were administered to 57BL/6J mice or vehicle 2 h before intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). 4-Octyl Itaconate treatment significantly prolonged the survival rate and simultaneously decreased the serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and lactate in mice induced by LPS. 4-Octyl Itaconate protects mice against experimental lethal endotoxaemia partly by inhibiting cytokine release and lactate production [1].

References:
[1] Liao, S. T. et al. 4-Octyl itaconate inhibits aerobic glycolysis by targeting GAPDH to exert anti-inflammatory effects. Nat. Commun. 10, 5091, 2019.
[2] Li, Y., Chen, X., Zhang, H., et al. 4-Octyl Itaconate Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation. Dddt 14, 5547–5558. 2020. doi:10.2147/DDDT.S280922.
[3] Olagnier, D. et al. SARS-CoV2-mediated suppression of NRF2-signaling reveals potent antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of 4-octyl-itaconate and dimethyl fumarate. Nat. Commun. 11, 4938, 2020.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 3133-16-2 SDF
Synonyms N/A
Chemical Name N/A
Canonical SMILES O=C(OCCCCCCCC)CC(C(O)=O)=C
Formula C13H22O4 M.Wt 242.31
Solubility DMSO : ≥ 150 mg/mL (619.04 mM) Storage Store at -20°C
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

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Research Update

4-Octyl itaconate inhibits aerobic glycolysis by targeting GAPDH to exert anti-inflammatory effects

Nat Commun2019 Nov 8;10(1):5091.PMID: 31704924DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-13078-5

Activated macrophages switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, similar to the Warburg effect, presenting a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory disease. The endogenous metabolite itaconate has been reported to regulate macrophage function, but its precise mechanism is not clear. Here, we show that 4-Octyl itaconate (4-OI, a cell-permeable itaconate derivative) directly alkylates cysteine residue 22 on the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH and decreases its enzyme activity. Glycolytic flux analysis by U13C glucose tracing provides evidence that 4-OI blocks glycolytic flux at GAPDH. 4-OI thereby downregulates aerobic glycolysis in activated macrophages, which is required for its anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory effects of 4-OI are replicated by heptelidic acid, 2-DG and reversed by increasing wild-type (but not C22A mutant) GAPDH expression. 4-OI protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality in vivo and inhibits cytokine release. These findings show that 4-OI has anti-inflammatory effects by targeting GAPDH to decrease aerobic glycolysis in macrophages.

4-Octyl itaconate Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

Drug Des Devel Ther2020 Dec 17;14:5547-5558.PMID: 33364751DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S280922

Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a fatal disease in the absence of pharmacological treatment. Oxidative stress and inflammation are closely related to ALI. Innate immune cells are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Macrophages play an extremely important role in ALI through the activation of inflammation and oxidative stress. Itaconate, a metabolite of tricarboxylic acid, has been reported to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role of itaconate in ALI is unclear. Herein, we use 4-Octyl itaconate (OI), the cellular permeable derivate of itaconate, to study the effects of itaconate in vivo and in vitro.
Methods: We used OI to pretreat C57BL/6 mice and LPS-induced ALI models to illustrate the role of itaconate in acute lung injury. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group, OI (100 mg/kg) group, ALI Group, ALI + OI (50 mg/kg) group, and ALI + OI (100 mg/kg) group. RAW264.7 cells were used to further prove the role and mechanism of itaconate in vitro.
Results: According to the H&E staining of the lung, OI was observed to significantly reduce lung inflammation. The active oxygen content of tissues was also significantly reduced (P<0.05). OI reduced the accumulation of neutrophils and secretion of inflammatory factors in LPS-induced ALI (P<0.05). At the cellular level, OI also reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. Intervention with OI was also observed to upregulate the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) and Nrf-2 target genes in the lung tissue and RAW264.7 cells.
Conclusion: OI alleviates LPS-induced ALI. Moreover, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of OI might depend on the activation of Nrf-2. Therefore, OI might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of ALI.

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