CP-456773, cytokine release inhibitory drug-3 CRID3, MCC950 sodium and MCC950, all are the short forms for N-(1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-S-indacen-4-ylcarbamoyl)-4-(2-hydroxy-2-propanyl)-2-furansulfonamide. Chemically, it is a derivative of diaryl sulfonylurea derivative. It is a small molecule. Its molecular structure is diagrammatically depicted in Figure 1. The roadmap for its synthesis is documented in the scientific literature in detail.
BMPO, BocMPO or 5-BMPO cpd is the short form available for 5-tert-butoxycarbonyl 5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide. It is novel spin trap, which is butoxylated. It molecular structure is diagrammatically depicted in Figure 1. The detailed protocol for its synthesis has already been documented in the scientific literature
H2DCFDA or DCFH-DA is the short form, which is used for 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Its molecular structure is diagrammatically depicted in Figure 1. It is neutral as it does not carry a net electric charge, thus it is non polar also.
Mitomycin C is also known as 7-amino-9α-methoxymitosane (Carlos de Oliveira and Wilson, 2020). Chemically, Mitomycin C is a small molecule. Its molecular structure is diagrammatically shown in Figure 1.
Chemically, GW 4869 is a small and novel molecule highly specific in its inhibitory action. Its molecular structure is diagrammatically depicted in Figure 1. It is cationic and also hydrophobic in its behavior. GW 4869 inhibits sphingomyelinases (SMase), more specifically neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (N-SMase 2), also termed sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 (SMPD3) (Vuckovic et al., 2017) in a non-competitive and Magnesium ion dependent manner under both conditions, i.e., in vitro and in vivo, with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50) of 1 micro-Molar (μM). This inhibition is tissue dependent as GW 4869 does not inhibit neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (N-SMase 2) in the Multiple myeloma (MM) cells (Vuckovic et al., 2017). SMase is a hydrolase thus, when active it catalyzes the hydrolysis of Sphingomyelin that results in the production of phosphorylcholine and lipid ceramide, that is bioactive in nature. As this hydrolysis occurs optimally at the pH value 7, thus these SMases are termed as neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) (Canals et al., 2011).
LL-37, which is also known as cathelicidin. Chemically, it is a peptide, i.e., a short sequence of amino acids (AA), which is made up of only 37 amino acids. Its particular sequence of AA (also called the primary structure) is illustrated in Figure 1. As you can see in Figure 1, its primary structure has two leucine residues and “L” is the alphabetical representation of leucine, therefore it is named as LL-37 (Yang et al., 2020). LL-37 has anti-microbial properties against a broad spectrum of pathogenic microbes, like, bacteria (both, gram positive and negative), viruses and fungi (Turner et al., 1998). It is naturally synthesized in the body, upon the microbial invasion (Chen et al., 2018). It links the two major domains of the immune system, i.e., innate and adaptive. It does so by employing the cells of immune system at the site of infection, and thereby stimulating only the specific receptors on these cells. As it regulates the expression of both distinct types of inflammatory cytokines, i.e., pro- and anti-, normal expression and activity of LL-37 is not only essential but critical to normal physiology of the body.
Staurosporine (Str) (GC15299) is an alkaloid, which has a complex molecular structure comprising of nine fused rings. Its structure is diagrammatically depicted in Figure 1. It is primarily classified as a derivative of Indolocarbazole (Toledo and Lydon).
Thapsigargin (shortened as Tg) is a small yet structurally complex molecule, that inhibits the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) at the concentration of nano Molar. Tg at this concentration is particularly safe for the other transmembrane pumps It is the extensively studied SERCA inhibitor. The structure of carbon backbone in the Tg is very complex as there lies a fusion of three rings in the heart of its molecular structure.
3-TYP that is also known as 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) pyridine, is a small molecule. Its molecular structure is presented in Figure 1. It effectively and selectively modulates i.e., inhibits the Sirt3 protein, a mitochondrial enzyme having roles in the regulation of a vast spectrum of the metabolic processes (a collective term for catabolism and anabolism) thus contributes to the body’s overall homeostasis.
It is a small novel synthetic molecule/ compound, highly selective in its action, and can be used to inhibit the NAE. NAE is defined as the NEDD8 activating enzyme. Different studies showed that this small NEDD8 molecule plays an important role in the regulation of the activity of CRLs. These CLRs (cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases) are essential components of cancer biology as they control the turnover of different kinds of proteins.