In many areas of biomedical research, such as drug development, environmental toxicology, and disease pathology, cellular toxicity is an essential metric. Researchers frequently rely on trustworthy assays to precisely quantify cytotoxicity,
Chemicals known as CFDA-SE (5-(and-6)-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester) are frequently employed in biological and biochemical studies. The fluorophore carboxyfluorescein, which releases green fluorescence when stimulated by light, is the source of CFDA-SE. CFDA-SE is reactive to primary amines due to the succinimidyl ester group, which enables it to label amino group-containing compounds such as proteins.
The soil-dwelling bacterium Streptomyces achromogenes is the source of streptozocin, also referred to as streptozotocin. It is structurally related to glucose and is a member of the nitrosourea chemical class. Because of its similarity to glucose, it is easier for pancreatic beta cells to absorb and causes a selective buildup in the pancreas. Streptozotocin, also known as streptozocin (INN, USP) (STZ),
In molecular biology, cyanine dye SYBR Safe is utilized as a nucleic acid stain. DNA binds to SYBR Safe. Green light (λmax = 524 nm) is released while blue light (λmax = 509 nm) is absorbed by the resultant DNA-dye combination .Thermo Fisher Scientific, a division of Life Technologies, created the SYBR series of nucleic acid stains, which includes SYBR Safe DNA Gel Stain. The goal was to develop a less hazardous substitute for the widely used DNA stain ethidium bromide, which is known to have mutagenic effects.
A naturally occurring bacterium called Streptomyces hygroscopicus, which is frequently found in soil, produces hygromycin B. The antibiotic is a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine and is categorized as an aminoglycoside. Its unique structure, which consists of a 4-aminoglucose ring linked to a hygromycin A moiety, is what makes it unique.
Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, or poly(I:C), is a synthetic substitute for double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Poly(I:C) is made up of lengthy chains connecting repeating units of cytidine (C) and inosine (I). It is produced in a manner that closely resembles the structure of viral dsRNA, which frequently sets off the immune system's antiviral reaction.
Numerous bacteria, including Streptomyces clavuligerus and Streptomyces lysosuperificus, are producers of tunicamycin. The antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer properties of tunicamycins, which are naturally occurring nucleoside derivatives, are ascribed to their suppression of enzymatic processes involving polyisoprenyl phosphate and UDP-GlcNAc or UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide.
Philip Showalter Hench created dexamethasone for the first time in 1957, and it was authorized for use in medicine in 1958. As a steroid hormone belonging to the glucocorticoid class, dexamethasone shares many similarities with the naturally occurring hormone cortisol,
Rapamycin is also known as sirolimus. It is made by the bacteria Streptomyces hygroscopicus, which was initially isolated from samples discovered on Easter Island in 1972. Rapamycin was the initial name of the chemical, taken from the Rapa Nui, the local name of the island.