It is a small novel synthetic molecule/ compound, highly selective in its action, and can be used to inhibit the NAE. NAE is defined as the NEDD8 activating enzyme. Different studies showed that this small NEDD8 molecule plays an important role in the regulation of the activity of CRLs. These CLRs (cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases) are essential components of cancer biology as they control the turnover of different kinds of proteins.
KRN 7000, is also known as α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). It is a synthetic glycoprotein i.e., having chemically bonded carbohydrate and lipid part (specifically sphingolipid).Its structural formula is diagrammatically shown in Figure 1, while the different components of KRN 7000 are highlighted in the Figure 2. Keep in mind that both the structures in Figure 1 and Figure 2 are of KRN 7000.
It is defined as a novel synthetic compound that can be administered orally for the allosteric inhibition of Akt. This novel molecule requires the pleckstrin homology domain for its action and that’s why it acts as a selective inhibitor of Akt. Studies reported that it is equally potent to inhibit the AKt1 and Akt2 enzymes but is almost 5 times less potent to inhibit the Akt3 enzyme.
T-5224 is a small molecule that is non-peptidic in nature. It acts as an inhibitor of activator protein/c-Fos (transcription factors) by inhibiting the binding of activator protein AP-1 to the AP binding site, thus showing anti-inflammatory effects. It regulates the gene expressions for the pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disease that seriously threatens human health. It is estimated that there will be more than 70 million AD patients worldwide in 2030, bringing a heavy burden to patients, families and society.
Metformin (Metformin) has the effect of lowering blood sugar by inhibiting the production of glucose in the liver. It is the first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world. Hundreds of millions of people around the world are taking metformin.
RSL3 is also called RAS-selective lethal 3. It is a small molecule that can inhibit the action of GPX4, which leads to the ferroptosis of the cells. Ferroptosis is defined as the non-apoptotic type of cell death which is iron-dependent. In the presence of iron, or due to the accumulation of iron within the cells, various kinds of enzymes are active, which leads to ferroptosis. This increase in the accumulation of iron results in an increase in the level of lipid peroxidase enzymes within the cells.
It is the first novel synthetic compound that is used to inhibit the actions of PIK3. It is exclusively considered that LY294002 has a selective inhibitory role for PIK3, but the latest research indicated that it not only inhibits the PIK3 but also inhibits the other lipid kinases as well along with the inhibition of some unrelated proteins. This PI3K, which is an abbreviation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, is an enzyme that belongs to the kinase family and has important functions related to some cellular signals for growth, survivability, proliferation, and for specified functions of particular cells.
It is defined as a novel synthetic compound that can block transcription activity by inhibiting the action of Nrf2. Nrf2 is also called nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. The nrf2 signaling pathway gives the therapeutic approach to the researchers to treat the various kinds of inflammatory, metabolic, cardiovascular, and neuro-inflammatory disorders. It is because it initiates the homeostatic response against the changes in the metabolism and inflammatory responses.
SU5416 is a small, protein bounded, lipophilic in nature molecule, that has the potential to act as an inhibitor for the receptor tyrosine kinase of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 and 2. With relation to the kinase domain, it can also inhibit the adenosine triphosphate as a competitive inhibitor.