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The immune and inflammation-related pathway including the Toll-like receptors pathway, the B cell receptor signaling pathway, the T cell receptor signaling pathway, etc.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in host cell recognition and responses to microbial pathogens. TLR4 initially recruits TIRAP and MyD88. MyD88 then recruits IRAKs, TRAF6, and the TAK1 complex, leading to early-stage activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases [1]. TLR4 is endocytosed and delivered to intracellular vesicles and forms a complex with TRAM and TRIF, which then recruits TRAF3 and the protein kinases TBK1 and IKKi. TBK1 and IKKi catalyze the phosphorylation of IRF3, leading to the expression of type I IFN [2].

BCR signaling is initiated through ligation of mIg under conditions that induce phosphorylation of the ITAMs in CD79, leading to the activation of Syk. Once Syk is activated, the BCR signal is transmitted via a series of proteins associated with the adaptor protein B-cell linker (Blnk, SLP-65). Blnk binds CD79a via non-ITAM tyrosines and is phosphorylated by Syk. Phospho-Blnk acts as a scaffold for the assembly of the other components, including Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), Vav 1, and phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLCγ2) [3]. Following the assembly of the BCR-signalosome, GRB2 binds and activates the Ras-guanine exchange factor SOS, which in turn activates the small GTPase RAS. The original RAS signal is transmitted and amplified through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which including the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase RAF followed by MEK and extracellular signal related kinases ERK 1 and 2 [4]. After stimulation of BCR, CD19 is phosphorylated by Lyn. Phosphorylated CD19 activates PI3K by binding to the p85 subunit of PI3K and produce phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) from PIP2, and PIP3 transmits signals downstream [5].

Central process of T cells responding to specific antigens is the binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) to specific peptides bound to the major histocompatibility complex which expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Once TCR connected with its ligand, the ζ-chain–associated protein kinase 70 molecules (Zap-70) are recruited to the TCR-CD3 site and activated, resulting in an initiation of several signaling cascades. Once stimulation, Zap-70 forms complexes with several molecules including SLP-76; and a sequential protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK), and MAP kinase (MAPK) [6]. Two MAPK kinases, MKK4 and MKK7, have been reported to be the primary activators of JNK. MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6 are activators of P38 MAP kinase [7]. MAP kinase pathways are major pathways induced by TCR stimulation, and they play a key role in T-cell responses.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) binds to the cytosolic domain of CD28, leading to conversion of PIP2 to PIP3, activation of PKB (Akt) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), and subsequent signaling transduction [8].



[1] Kawai T, Akira S. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors[J]. Nature immunology, 2010, 11(5): 373-384.

[2] Kawai T, Akira S. Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity[J]. Immunity, 2011, 34(5): 637-650.

[3] Packard T A, Cambier J C. B lymphocyte antigen receptor signaling: initiation, amplification, and regulation[J]. F1000Prime Rep, 2013, 5(40.10): 12703.

[4] Zhong Y, Byrd J C, Dubovsky J A. The B-cell receptor pathway: a critical component of healthy and malignant immune biology[C]//Seminars in hematology. WB Saunders, 2014, 51(3): 206-218.

[5] Baba Y, Matsumoto M, Kurosaki T. Calcium signaling in B cells: regulation of cytosolic Ca 2+ increase and its sensor molecules, STIM1 and STIM2[J]. Molecular immunology, 2014, 62(2): 339-343.

[6] Adachi K, Davis M M. T-cell receptor ligation induces distinct signaling pathways in naive vs. antigen-experienced T cells[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011, 108(4): 1549-1554.

[7] Rincón M, Flavell R A, Davis R A. The Jnk and P38 MAP kinase signaling pathways in T cell–mediated immune responses[J]. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2000, 28(9): 1328-1337.

[8] Bashour K T, Gondarenko A, Chen H, et al. CD28 and CD3 have complementary roles in T-cell traction forces[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014, 111(6): 2241-2246.

Products for  Immunology/Inflammation

  1. Bestell-Nr. Artikelname Informationen
  2. GC50569 NLRP3-IN-2 NLRP3-IN-2, ein Zwischensubstrat bei der Synthese von Glyburid, hemmt die Bildung des NLRP3-Inflammasoms in Kardiomyozyten und begrenzt die InfarktgrÖße nach myokardialer IschÄmie/Reperfusion bei der Maus, ohne den Glukosestoffwechsel zu beeintrÄchtigen.  NLRP3-IN-2  Chemical Structure
  3. GC45194 α-(difluoromethyl)-DL-Arginine

    Bacteria synthesize the cellular growth factor putrescine through a number of pathways.

    α-(difluoromethyl)-DL-Arginine  Chemical Structure
  4. GC65446 α-Amyrin acetate α-Amyrinacetat, ein natürliches Triterpenoid, hat eine entzündungshemmende Wirkung, ein krampflösendes Profil und eine entspannende Wirkung. α-Amyrin acetate  Chemical Structure
  5. GC48279 α-D-Glucose-1-phosphate (sodium salt hydrate) An intermediate in glycogen metabolism α-D-Glucose-1-phosphate (sodium salt hydrate)  Chemical Structure
  6. GC45206 α-GalCer analog 8

    α-Galactosylceramide analog 8 (α-GalCer analog 8) is a triazole derivative of α-galactosylceramide.

    α-GalCer analog 8  Chemical Structure
  7. GC40262 α-Humulene α-Humulen ist ein Hauptbestandteil von Tanacetum vulgare L. α-Humulene  Chemical Structure
  8. GC45601 α-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester-d5   α-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester-d5  Chemical Structure
  9. GC48292 α-MSH (human, mouse, rat, porcine, bovine, ovine) (trifluoroacetate salt) α-MSH (α-Melanozyten-stimulierendes Hormon) TFA, ein endogenes Neuropeptid, ist ein endogener Melanocortinrezeptor 4 (MC4R)-Agonist mit entzÜndungshemmenden und antipyretischen AktivitÄten. α-MSH (human, mouse, rat, porcine, bovine, ovine) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  10. GC41499 α-Phellandrene α-Phellandrene is a cyclic monoterpene that has been found in various plants, including Cannabis, and has diverse biological activities. α-Phellandrene  Chemical Structure
  11. GC63941 α-Solanine α-Solanin, eine bioaktive Komponente und eines der wichtigsten steroidalen Glykoalkaloide in Kartoffeln, hemmt nachweislich das Wachstum und induziert Apoptose in Krebszellen. α-Solanine  Chemical Structure
  12. GC49467 β-Aescin A triterpenoid saponin with diverse biological activities β-Aescin  Chemical Structure
  13. GC37999 β-Anhydroicaritin β-Anhydroicaritin wird aus Boswellia carterii Birdware isoliert, hat wichtige biologische und pharmakologische Wirkungen wie Antiosteoporose, Östrogenregulierung und Antitumoreigenschaften. β-Anhydroicaritin  Chemical Structure
  14. GC45225 β-Apooxytetracycline β-Apooxytetracycline is a potential impurity found in commercial preparations of oxytetracycline. β-Apooxytetracycline  Chemical Structure
  15. GC48920 β-Carboline-1-carboxylic Acid An alkaloid with diverse biological activities β-Carboline-1-carboxylic Acid  Chemical Structure
  16. GC48998 β-Defensin-1 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide β-Defensin-1 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  17. GC48298 β-Defensin-2 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide β-Defensin-2 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  18. GC45230 β-Defensin-3 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) β-Defensin-3 is a peptide with antimicrobial properties that protects the skin and mucosal membranes of the respiratory, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. β-Defensin-3 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  19. GC45231 β-Defensin-4 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) β-Defensin-4 is a peptide with antimicrobial properties that protects the skin and mucosal membranes of the respiratory, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. β-Defensin-4 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  20. GC41623 β-Elemonic Acid β-Elemonic Acid ist ein aus Boswellia papyrifera isoliertes Triterpen. β-Elemonic Acid  Chemical Structure
  21. GC64619 β-Ionone β-Ionone ist wirksam bei der Induktion von Apoptose in Adenokarzinomzellen des Magens SGC7901. Anti-Krebs-AktivitÄt. β-Ionone  Chemical Structure
  22. GC41502 β-Myrcene β-Myrcen (β-β-Myrcen), eine aromatische flüchtige Verbindung, unterdrückt die TNFα-induzierte NF-κB-Aktivität. β-Myrcene  Chemical Structure
  23. GC45604 β-Rubromycin β-Rubromycin ist ein potenter und selektiver Inhibitor der RNA-gerichteten DNA-Polymerasen (reverse Transkriptase) des humanen ImmunschwÄchevirus-1 (HIV-1). β-Rubromycin  Chemical Structure
  24. GC48312 γ-Glu-Cys (ammonium salt) An intermediate in GSH synthesis γ-Glu-Cys (ammonium salt)  Chemical Structure
  25. GC40790 γ-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is an ω-6 fatty acid which can be elongated to arachidonic acid for endogenous eicosanoid synthesis. γ-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester  Chemical Structure
  26. GC45238 δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide is a potential impurity found in commercial preparations of triamcinolone acetonide. δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide  Chemical Structure
  27. GC40307 δ2-cis-Hexadecenoic Acid One of the first organisms in which quorum sensing was observed were Myxobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria, found mainly in soil and also common to marine and freshwater systems. δ2-cis-Hexadecenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  28. GC41393 ω-3 Arachidonic Acid methyl ester ω-3 Fatty acids, represented primarily by docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and α-linoleate, are essential dietary nutrients required for normal growth and development. ω-3 Arachidonic Acid methyl ester  Chemical Structure
  29. GC45713 (±)-α-Tocopherol Acetate (±)-α-Tocopherolacetat ((±)-Vitamin E-Acetat), ist eine oral aktive synthetische Form von Vitamin E. (±)-α-Tocopherol Acetate  Chemical Structure
  30. GC52010 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z),15(Z)-Octadecadienoic Acid An oxylipin gut microbiota metabolite (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z),15(Z)-Octadecadienoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  31. GC52013 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid An oxylipin and metabolite of linoleic acid (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  32. GC40112 (±)-Climbazole-d4 (±)-Climbazole-d4 is intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of climbazole by GC- or LC-MS. (±)-Climbazole-d4  Chemical Structure
  33. GC50708 (±)-ML 209 An RORγt antagonist (±)-ML 209  Chemical Structure
  34. GC39271 (±)-Naringenin (±)-Naringenin ist ein natürlich vorkommendes Flavonoid. (±)-Naringenin  Chemical Structure
  35. GC41212 (±)10(11)-EpDPA Cytochrome P450 metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids produces numerous bioactive epoxide regioisomers. (±)10(11)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  36. GC40466 (±)11(12)-EET (±)11(12)-EET ist ein NLRP3-Inflammasom-Inhibitor. (±)11(12)-EET  Chemical Structure
  37. GC40467 (±)11-HETE (±)11-HETE is one of the six monohydroxy fatty acids produced by the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid. (±)11-HETE  Chemical Structure
  38. GC40802 (±)12(13)-DiHOME

    (±)12(13)-DiHOME is the diol form of (±)12(13)-EpOME, a cytochrome P450-derived epoxide of linoleic acid also known as isoleukotoxin.

    (±)12(13)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  39. GC41191 (±)13(14)-EpDPA (±)13(14)-EpDPA (13,14-EpDPE) ist das Produkt der Reaktion von Cytochrom-P-450-Epoxygenase mit Docosahexaensäure (DHA). (±)13(14)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  40. GC40355 (±)13-HpODE (±)13-HpODE (13-Hydroperoxylinolsäure) ist ein racemisches Gemisch von Hydroperoxiden, das durch die Oxidation von Linolsäure durch Lipoxygenase hergestellt wird. (±)13-HpODE  Chemical Structure
  41. GC41288 (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide is an ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxide. (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide  Chemical Structure
  42. GC40362 (±)18-HEPE (±)18-HEPE is produced by non-enzymatic oxidation of EPA. (±)18-HEPE  Chemical Structure
  43. GC41655 (±)19(20)-EDP Ethanolamide (±)19(20)-EDP ethanolamide is an ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxide and cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonist (EC50s = 108 and 280 nM for CB1 and CB2, respectively). (±)19(20)-EDP Ethanolamide  Chemical Structure
  44. GC40270 (±)5(6)-DiHET

    5(6)-DiHET is a fully racemic version of the enantiomeric forms biosynthesized from 5(6)-EET by epoxide hydrolases.

    (±)5(6)-DiHET  Chemical Structure
  45. GC41203 (±)7(8)-EpDPA Docosahexaenoic acid is the most abundant ω-3 fatty acid in neural tissues, especially in the brain and retina. (±)7(8)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  46. GC40801 (±)9(10)-DiHOME (±)9(10)-DiHOME ist das Racemat von 9,10-DiHOME. (±)9(10)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  47. GC46000 (•)-Drimenol A sesquiterpene alcohol (•)-Drimenol  Chemical Structure
  48. GC40809 (+)-β-Citronellol (+)-β-Citronellol (D-Citronellol) ist ein alkoholisches Monoterpen, das in Ätherischem GeranienÖl vorkommt. (+)-β-Citronellol  Chemical Structure
  49. GC49268 (+)-δ-Cadinene A sesquiterpene with antimicrobial and anticancer activities (+)-δ-Cadinene  Chemical Structure
  50. GN10654 (+)-Corynoline Extracted from corydalis sheareri S. Moore;Store the product in sealed,cool and dry condition (+)-Corynoline  Chemical Structure
  51. GC45263 (+)-D-threo-PDMP (hydrochloride) (+)-D-threo-PDMP is a ceramide analog and is one of the four possible stereoisomers of PDMP. (+)-D-threo-PDMP (hydrochloride)  Chemical Structure
  52. GC31691 (+)-DHMEQ (+)-DHMEQ ist ein Aktivator des antioxidativen Transkriptionsfaktors Nrf2. (+)-DHMEQ  Chemical Structure
  53. GC45266 (+)-Macrosphelide A (+)-Macrosphelide A ist ein Makrolid-Antibiotikum. (+)-Macrosphelide A  Chemical Structure
  54. GC40266 (+)-Praeruptorin A (+)-Praeruptorin A ist ein bioaktiver Hauptbestandteil von Peucedanum praeruptorum (auch bekannt als Bai-Hua Qian Hu). (+)-Praeruptorin A  Chemical Structure
  55. GC18749 (+)-Rugulosin (+)-Rugulosin ist ein kristalliner Farbstoff von Penicillium rugulosum Thom. (+)-Rugulosin  Chemical Structure
  56. GC63969 (+)-Schisandrin B (+)-Schisandrin B ist ein Enantiomer von Schisandrin B. (+)-Schisandrin B  Chemical Structure
  57. GC40264 (+)-Valencene

    (+)-Valencene is a sesquiterpene that has been found in C.

    (+)-Valencene  Chemical Structure
  58. GC49502 (-)-β-Sesquiphellandrene A sesquiterpene with antiviral and anticancer activities (-)-β-Sesquiphellandrene  Chemical Structure
  59. GC32705 (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin) (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxychinomicin) (Dehydroxymethylepoxychinomicin) ist ein potenter, selektiver und irreversibler NF-⋺B-Inhibitor, der sich kovalent an einen Cysteinrest bindet. (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin)  Chemical Structure
  60. GC14049 (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (-)-Epigallocatechingallat (EGCG) (EGCG) ist ein wichtiges Polyphenol in grÜnem Tee, das die Zellproliferation hemmen und Zellapoptose induzieren kann. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)  Chemical Structure
  61. GC45248 (-)-FINO2 (-)-FINO2 ist ein potenter Ferroptose-Induktor. (-)-FINO2 hemmt die AktivitÄt von GPX4. (-)-FINO2 ist ein stabiles Oxidationsmittel, das Eisen oxidiert und bei unterschiedlichen pH-Werten stabil ist. (-)-FINO2 verursacht eine weit verbreitete Lipidperoxidation. (-)-FINO2  Chemical Structure
  62. GC46245 (-)-G-Lactone A bicyclic γ-lactone (-)-G-Lactone  Chemical Structure
  63. GC38316 (-)-Limonene (-)-Limonen ((S)-(-)-Limonen) ist ein Monoterpen, das in vielen KiefernnadelÖlen und in Terpentin vorkommt. (-)-Limonene  Chemical Structure
  64. GC46247 (-)-Mycousnine A microbial metabolite with antibacterial and antifungal activities (-)-Mycousnine  Chemical Structure
  65. GC45251 (-)-Neplanocin A S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of SAH to adenosine and homocysteine. (-)-Neplanocin A  Chemical Structure
  66. GC45272 (-)-Rasfonin (-)-Rasfonin ist ein Pilz-SekundÄrmetabolit und hemmt kleine G-Proteine Ras. (-)-Rasfonin induziert Apoptose, Nekrose und Autophagie in ACHN-Zellen (einer Nierenkarzinom-Zelllinie). (-)-Rasfonin  Chemical Structure
  67. GC40803 (25S)-δ7-Dafachronic Acid During unfavorable environmental conditions, C. (25S)-δ7-Dafachronic Acid  Chemical Structure
  68. GC41700 (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (CSTMP) is a stilbene derivative with antioxidant and anticancer activities. (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine  Chemical Structure
  69. GC61668 (E)-3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid (E)-3,4-DimethoxyzimtsÄure ist das weniger aktive Isomer von 3,4-DimethoxyzimtsÄure. (E)-3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid  Chemical Structure
  70. GC41702 (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil (BVU) is a pyrimidine base and an inactive metabolite of the antiviral agents sorivudine and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) that may be regenerated to BVDU in vivo. (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil  Chemical Structure
  71. GC49003 (E)-Ajoene A disulfide with diverse biological activities (E)-Ajoene  Chemical Structure
  72. GC41703 (E)-C-HDMAPP (ammonium salt) Synthetic and natural alkyl phosphates, also known as phosphoantigens, stimulate the proliferation of γδ-T lymphocytes. (E)-C-HDMAPP (ammonium salt)  Chemical Structure
  73. GC39747 (E/Z)-GSK5182 (E/Z)-GSK5182 ist eine racemische Verbindung der (E)-GSK5182- und (Z)-GSK5182-Isomere. (E/Z)-GSK5182  Chemical Structure
  74. GC61564 (E/Z)-IT-603 (E/Z)-IT-603 ist eine Mischung aus E-IT-603 und Z-IT-603 (IT-603). (E/Z)-IT-603  Chemical Structure
  75. GC41721 (R)-α-Lipoic Acid (R)-α-Lipoic acid is the naturally occurring enantiomer of lipoic acid, a cyclic disulfide antioxidant. (R)-α-Lipoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  76. GC49167 (R)-(+)-Trityl glycidyl ether A synthetic precursor (R)-(+)-Trityl glycidyl ether  Chemical Structure
  77. GC13030 (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen ist das R-Enantiomer von Ibuprofen, inaktiv bei COX, hemmt die NF-κB-Aktivierung; (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen zeigt entzÜndungshemmende und antinozizeptive Wirkungen. (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen  Chemical Structure
  78. GC41620 (R)-(-)-Mellein (R)-(-)-Mellein ist ein aus KulturflÜssigkeiten dieses Aspergillus isoliertes Antibiotikum. (R)-(-)-Mellein  Chemical Structure
  79. GC41712 (R)-3-hydroxy Myristic Acid Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are components of the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. (R)-3-hydroxy Myristic Acid  Chemical Structure
  80. GC65610 (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanon ist ein Diarylheptanoid, das in Alpinia officinarum vorkommt. (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone  Chemical Structure
  81. GC65373 (R)-IL-17 modulator 4 (R)-IL-17-Modulator 4 ist die R-Konfiguration von IL-17-Modulator 4. (R)-IL-17 modulator 4  Chemical Structure
  82. GC12578 (R)-Lisofylline (R)-Lisofyllin ((R)-Lisophyllin) ist ein (R)-Enantiomer des Metaboliten von Pentoxifyllin mit entzÜndungshemmenden Eigenschaften. (R)-Lisofylline  Chemical Structure
  83. GC52185 (R,S)-Anatabine-d4 (R,S)-Anatabine-d4  Chemical Structure
  84. GC39321 (Rac)-Myrislignan (Rac)-Myrislignan ist das Racemat von Myrislignan. (Rac)-Myrislignan  Chemical Structure
  85. GC46345 (S)-(-)-Perillaldehyde (S)-(-)-Perillaldehyd ist ein Hauptbestandteil des in Perillae Herba enthaltenen Ätherischen Öls. (S)-(-)-Perillaldehyde  Chemical Structure
  86. GC49028 (S)-3-Thienylglycine A thienyl-containing amino acid (S)-3-Thienylglycine  Chemical Structure
  87. GC52192 (S)-4'-nitro-Blebbistatin (S)-4'-Nitro-Blebbistatin ist ein nicht zytotoxischer, photostabiler, fluoreszierender und spezifischer Myosin-II-Inhibitor, der in der Untersuchung der spezifischen Rolle von Myosin II in physiologischen, entwicklungsbezogenen und zellbiologischen Studien verwendet wurde. (S)-4'-nitro-Blebbistatin  Chemical Structure
  88. GC48719 (S)-Canadine (S)-Canadine ist ein Alkaloid und Zwischenprodukt in der Biosynthese von Berberin mit insektizider Wirkung. (S)-Canadine  Chemical Structure
  89. GC46352 (S)-DO271 An inactive control for DO264 (S)-DO271  Chemical Structure
  90. GC11867 (S)-Lisofylline inactive optical enantiomer of (R)-LSF, an anti-inflammatory agent (S)-Lisofylline  Chemical Structure
  91. GC13427 (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate (S)-Methylisothioharnstoffsulfat ist ein potenter, selektiver und kompetitiver Inhibitor der induzierbaren Stickoxidsynthase (iNOS). (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate  Chemical Structure
  92. GC41740 (S)-p38 MAPK Inhibitor III (S)-p38 MAPK inhibitor III is a methylsulfanylimidazole that inhibits p38 MAP kinase (IC50 = 0.90 μM in vitro). (S)-p38 MAPK Inhibitor III  Chemical Structure
  93. GC46356 (Z)-9-Hexadecenol An unsaturated long-chain fatty alcohol with diverse biological activities (Z)-9-Hexadecenol  Chemical Structure
  94. GC38880 (Z)-Leukadherin-1 (Z)-Leukadherin-1 (ADH-503 freie Base) ist ein oral aktiver und allosterischer CD11b-Agonist. (Z)-Leukadherin-1 fÜhrt zur Repolarisation tumorassoziierter Makrophagen, zur Verringerung der Anzahl tumorinfiltrierender immunsuppressiver myeloider Zellen und verstÄrkt die Antworten dendritischer Zellen. (Z)-Leukadherin-1  Chemical Structure
  95. GC18787 (±)-Dunnione (±)-Dunnione is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone with diverse biological activities. (±)-Dunnione  Chemical Structure
  96. GC13662 (±)-Lisofylline (±)-Lisofyllin ((±)-Lisophyllin) ist das Racemat von Lisofyllin. (±)-Lisofylline  Chemical Structure
  97. GC46054 1β-Acetoxypolygodial A sesquiterpenoid 1β-Acetoxypolygodial  Chemical Structure
  98. GC45285 1,2,3-Trihexanoyl-rac-glycerol   1,2,3-Trihexanoyl-rac-glycerol  Chemical Structure
  99. GC46042 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-13C-sn-glycero-3-PC An internal standard for the quantification of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-PC 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-13C-sn-glycero-3-PC  Chemical Structure
  100. GC45781 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-d31-sn-glycero-3-PC An internal standard for the quantification of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-PC 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-d31-sn-glycero-3-PC  Chemical Structure
  101. GC46385 1,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-2-azido-2-deoxy-α-D-Mannopyranose A ManNAc analog and building block 1,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-2-azido-2-deoxy-α-D-Mannopyranose  Chemical Structure

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