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SP 600125

Catalog No.GC15344

SP 600125 Chemical Structure

JNK1/2/3 inhibitor

Size Price Stock Qty
10mM (in 1mL DMSO)
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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.

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Cell experiment: [1]

Cell lines

MIN6 cells

Preparation method

The solubility of this compound in DMSO is >10 mM. General tips for obtaining a higher concentration: Please warm the tube at 37 °C for 10 minutes and/or shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20°C for several months.

Reaction Conditions

40 μM, 36 hours


When the MIN6 cells were transfected with the Gal4 plasmid and CREB plasmid, SP600125 significantly stimulated CREB-mediated promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. There was a 2.8-fold increase in this reporter activity after exposure of the transfected MIN6 cells to 20 μM of the inhibitor.

Animal experiment: [2]

Animal models

Female C57BL/6 mice

Dosage form

Subcutaneous injection; 15 mg/kg; administered at 0, 12, 24, and 36 h


Anti-CD3 (50 μg) i.p. was administered as a single dose immediately after SP600125 at time 0. After 48 h, mice were killed, and the thymus was dissected for thymocyte isolation. Mice receiving SP600125 showed almost complete resistance to CD3 Ab-mediated apoptosis with CD4+CD8+ numbers the same as control animals.

Other notes

Please test the solubility of all compounds indoor, and the actual solubility may slightly differ with the theoretical value. This is caused by an experimental system error and it is normal.


[1] Vaishnav D, Jambal P, Reusch J E B, et al. SP600125, an inhibitor of c-jun N-terminal kinase, activates CREB by a p38 MAPK-mediated pathway. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 2003, 307(4): 855-860.

[2] Bennett B L, Sasaki D T, Murray B W, et al. SP600125, an anthrapyrazolone inhibitor of Jun N-terminal kinase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2001, 98(24): 13681-13686.


SP600125 is a selective, reversible and ATP-competitive inhibitor of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) with IC50 values of 40, 40 and 90 nM for JNK1, 2 and 3, respectively [1].

SP600125 was screened out from a time-resolved f luorescence assay using the GST-c-Jun and recombinant human JNK2. In this assay, SP600125 showed a Ki value of 190 nM. SP600125 was also found to inhibit JNK1, 2 and 3 isoforms in the selectivity tests. The selectivity of SP600125 for JNK is 300-fold greater than that for ERK1 and p38-2. In Jurkat T cells, SP600125 suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun with IC50 of 5-10 μM. SP600125 also inhibited the expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in cells stimulated with PMA and phytohemagglutinin, since JNK had been reported to regulate the transcription of IL-2. Besides that, SP600125 exerted differential inhibition of cytokines in CD4+ cells as well as inflammatory genes in monocytes. Moreover, SP600125 administration significantly inhibited TNF-α expression induced by LPS in a mouse model, suggesting that it had efficacy in endotoxin-induced inf lammation in vivo [1].

[1] Bennett B L, Sasaki D T, Murray B W, et al. SP600125, an anthrapyrazolone inhibitor of Jun N-terminal kinase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2001, 98(24): 13681-13686.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 129-56-6 SDF
Synonyms N/A
Chemical Name dibenzo[cd,g]indazol-6(2H)-one
Canonical SMILES O=C1C2=CC=CC3=C2C(C4=CC=CC=C41)=NN3
Formula C14H8N2O M.Wt 220.23
Solubility ≥ 11mg/mL in DMSO, ≥ 2.56 mg/mL in EtOH with gentle warming Storage Desiccate at -20°C
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

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Research Update

[Effect of Acupuncture Intervention on c-jun N-terminal Kinase Signaling in the Hippocampus in Rats with Forced Swimming Stress]

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu2016 Feb;41(1):18-23.PMID: 27141615DOI: 10.1080/03008207.2019.1593394

Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on c-jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling in the hippocampus in rats with forced-swimming stress, so as to reveal its underlying mechanism in relieving depression-like motor response.
Methods: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups as control, control + JNK inhibitor (SP 600125) , model, model + SP 600125, acupuncture, acupuncture + SP 600125, Fluoxetine (an anti-depressant) , and Fluoxetine + SP 600125 (n = 6 in each group). The depression-like behavior (immobility) model was established by forcing the rat to swim in a glass-cylinder and solitary raise. Acupuncture stimulation was applied to "Baihui" (GV-20) and "Yintang" (GV 29) for 20 min before forced swimming and once again 24 h later.. The rats of the Fluoxetine and Fluoxetine+ SP 600125 groups were treated by intragastric administration of fluoxetine 10 mL (1.8 mg)/kg before forced swimming and once again 24 h thereafter. The rats of the model + SP 600125 and acupuncture + SP 600125 groups were treated by intraperitoneal injection of SP 600125 (10 mg/kg) 90 min before forced swimming and 30 min before acupuncture intervention, respectively. The immobility duration of rats in the water glass-cylinder was used to assess their depression-like behavior response. The expression levels of protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK 4), MKK 7, JNK, and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) in the hippocampus were detected by Western blot.
Results: Compared to the control group, the duration of immobility, and the expression levels of hippocampal MKK 4, MKK 7, and p-JNK proteins were significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.01). While in comparison with the model group, the duration of immobility in the model + SP 600125, acupuncture, acupuncture + SP 600125, Fluoxetine and Fluoxetine + SP 600125 groups, the expression levels of hippocampal MKK 4 and MKK 7 proteins in the Fluoxetine + SP 600125 group, and those of p-JNK protein in the acupuncture, acupuncture + SP 600125, model + SP 600125, Fluoxetine and Fluoxetine + SP 600125 groups were considerably decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between the control and control + SP 600125 groups and among the model + SP 600125, acupuncture, acupuncture + SP 600125, Fluoxetine and Fluoxetine + SP 600125 groups in the duration of immobility (P > 0.05), and in the expression level of p-JNK protein (P > 0.05). No significant changes were found in the expression levels of JNK among the 8 groups (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: Acupuncture stimulation of GV 20 and GV 29 is effective in relieving depression-like motor response in forced-swimming stress rats, which may be closely associated with its effects in down-regulating the expression of hippocampal p-JNK protein.

The involvement of the ERK-MAPK pathway in TGF-β1-mediated connexin43-gap junction formation in chondrocytes

Connect Tissue Res2019 Sep;60(5):477-486.PMID: 30897973DOI: 10.1080/03008207.2019.1593394

Purposes: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) exhibits a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of articular cartilage. Connexin43 (Cx43) protein is predominant in the structures that form gap junctions. We aim to determine the potential underlying mechanisms of TGF-β1 (Transforming growth factor-β1)-regulated cell communication in chondrocytes. Materials and methods: After exposure of chondrocytes to recombinant TGF-β1, quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect expression levels of Cx43 mRNA. Western blot analysis was used to check Cx43 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family components. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to confirm ERK-MAPK pathway activation and Cx43 protein distribution. MAPK inhibitors (ERK inhibitor U0126, JNK inhibitor SP 600125 and P38 inhibitor SP 203580) were applied to verify the specificity effects of ERK-MAPK pathway. GJIC between chondrocytes were evaluated using Scrape loading/dye transfer (SLDT) assay. Results: It was first found that TGF-β1modulatedthe Cx43protein expressions and its sub-cellular distribution. TGF-β1 promoted gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) formations in chondrocytes, especially in a higher cell intensity. ERK-MAPK signaling pathway was activated in TGF-β1-mediated gap junctions among chondrocytes. Furthermore, the inhibitor of ERK attenuated the increases of Cx43 expressions and functional gap junction formations induced by TGF-β1, while cross-talk between ERK-MAPK and Smad signal pathways exists shown in the process. Conclusions: This study provides evidence to show the importance of the ERK-MAPK pathway in TGF-β1-mediated Cx43 expression and functional gap junction formation.

Dichloroacetate enhances the anti-tumor effect of sorafenib via modulating the ROS-JNK-Mcl-1 pathway in liver cancer cells

Exp Cell Res2021 Sep 1;406(1):112755.PMID: 34332981DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112755

Liver cancer is one of the most common and high recurrence malignancies. Besides radiotherapy and surgery, chemotherapy also plays an essential role in the treatment of liver cancer. Sorafenib and sorafenib-based combination therapies have been proven efficacy against tumors. However, previous clinical studies have indicated that some patients with liver cancer are resistant to sorafenib treatment and the existing strategies are not satisfactory in the clinic. Therefore, it is urgent to investigate strategies to improve the effectiveness of sorafenib for liver cancer and to explore effective drug combinations. In the present study, we found that dichloroacetate (DCA) could significantly enhance the anti-tumor effect of sorafenib on liver cancer cells, including reduced viability and dramatically promoted apoptosis in liver cancer cells. Moreover, compared to sorafenib alone, the combination of DCA and sorafenib markedly increased the degradation of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 by enhancing its phosphorylation. Overexpression of Mcl-1 could significantly attenuate the synergetic effect of DCA and sorafenib on apoptosis induction in liver cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that the ROS-JNK pathway was obviously activated in the DCA combined sorafenib group. The levels of ROS and p-JNK were dramatically up-regulated in the two drug combination groups. Antioxidant NAC could alleviate the synergetic effects of DCA and sorafenib on ROS generation, JNK activation, Mcl-1 degradation, and cell apoptosis. Moreover, DCA and sorafenib's effects on Mcl-1 degradation and apoptosis could also be inhibited by JNK inhibitor 'SP'600125. Finally, the synergetic effects of DCA and sorafenib on tumor growth suppression, Mcl-1 degradation and induction of apoptosis were also validated in liver cancer xenograft in vivo. These findings indicate that DCA enhances the anti-tumor effect of sorafenib via the ROS-JNK-Mcl-1 pathway in liver cancer cells. This study may provide new insights to improve the chemotherapeutic effect of sorafenib, which may be beneficial for further clinical application of sorafenib in liver cancer treatment.

ROS generation is involved in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-induced AP-1 activation through p38 MAPK and ERK pathways in JB6 cells

Environ Toxicol2022 Feb;37(2):237-244.PMID: 34730869DOI: 10.1002/tox.23393

Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nongenotoxic white mineral, which is mainly applied in the manufacture of paper, paint, plastic, sunscreen lotion and other products. Recently, TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been demonstrated to cause chronic inflammation and lung tumor formation in rats, which may be associated with the particle size of TiO2 . Considering the important role of activator protein-1 (AP-1) in regulating multiple genes involved in the cell proliferation and inflammation and the induction of neoplastic transformation, we aimed to evaluate the potency of TiO2 NPs (≤ 20 nm) on the activation of AP-1 signaling pathway and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a mouse epidermal cell line, JB6 cells. MTT, electron spin resonance (ESR), AP-1 luciferase activity assay in vitro and in vivo, and Western blotting assay were used to clarify this problem. Our results indicated that TiO2 NPs dose-dependently caused the hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation and sequentially increased the AP-1 activity in JB6 cells. Using AP-1-luciferase reporter transgenic mice models, an obvious increased AP-1 activity was detected in dermal tissue after exposure to TiO2 NPs for 24 h. Interestingly, TiO2 NPs increased the AP-1 activity via stimulating the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) family members, including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs), p38 kinase, and C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). Of note, the AP-1 activation induced by TiO2 NPs could be blocked by specific inhibitors (SB203580, PD98059, and SP 600125, respectively) that inhibit ERKs and p38 kinase but not JNKs. These findings indicate that ROS generation is involved in TiO2 NPs-induced AP-1 activation mediated by MAPKs signal pathway.

Tingenone and 22-hydroxytingenone target oxidative stress through downregulation of thioredoxin, leading to DNA double-strand break and JNK/p38-mediated apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells

Biomed Pharmacother2021 Oct;142:112034.PMID: 34411914DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112034

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most lethal form of leukemia. Standard anti-AML treatment remains almost unchanged for decades. Tingenone (TG) and 22-hydroxytingenone (22-HTG) are quinonemethide triterpenes found in the Amazonian plant Salacia impressifolia (Celastraceae), with cytotoxic properties in different histological types of cancer cells. In the present work, we investigated the anti-AML action mechanism of TG and 22-HTG in the AML HL-60 cell line. Both compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity in a panel of cancer cell lines. Mechanistic studies found that TG and 22-HTG reduced cell growth and caused the externalization of phosphatidylserine, the fragmentation of internucleosomal DNA and the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in HL-60 cells. In addition, pre-incubation with Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor, prevented TG- and 22-HTG-induced apoptosis, indicating cell death by apoptosis via a caspase-dependent pathway. The analysis of the RNA transcripts of several genes indicated the interruption of the cellular antioxidant system, including the downregulation of thioredoxin, as a target for TG and 22-HTG. The application of N-acetyl-cysteine, an antioxidant, completely prevented apoptosis induced by TG and 22-HTG, indicating activation of the apoptosis pathway mediated by oxidative stress. Moreover, TG and 22-HTG induced DNA double-strand break and phosphorylation of JNK2 (T183/Y185) and p38α (T180/Y182), and co-incubation with SP 600125 (JNK/SAPK inhibitor) and PD 169316 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented apoptosis induced by TG and 22-HTG. Together, these data indicate that TG and 22-HTG are new candidate for anti-AML therapy targeting thioredoxin.


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Average Rating: 5 ★★★★★ (Based on Reviews and 14 reference(s) in Google Scholar.)

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