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Immunology/Inflammation

The immune and inflammation-related pathway including the Toll-like receptors pathway, the B cell receptor signaling pathway, the T cell receptor signaling pathway, etc.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in host cell recognition and responses to microbial pathogens. TLR4 initially recruits TIRAP and MyD88. MyD88 then recruits IRAKs, TRAF6, and the TAK1 complex, leading to early-stage activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases [1]. TLR4 is endocytosed and delivered to intracellular vesicles and forms a complex with TRAM and TRIF, which then recruits TRAF3 and the protein kinases TBK1 and IKKi. TBK1 and IKKi catalyze the phosphorylation of IRF3, leading to the expression of type I IFN [2].

BCR signaling is initiated through ligation of mIg under conditions that induce phosphorylation of the ITAMs in CD79, leading to the activation of Syk. Once Syk is activated, the BCR signal is transmitted via a series of proteins associated with the adaptor protein B-cell linker (Blnk, SLP-65). Blnk binds CD79a via non-ITAM tyrosines and is phosphorylated by Syk. Phospho-Blnk acts as a scaffold for the assembly of the other components, including Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), Vav 1, and phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLCγ2) [3]. Following the assembly of the BCR-signalosome, GRB2 binds and activates the Ras-guanine exchange factor SOS, which in turn activates the small GTPase RAS. The original RAS signal is transmitted and amplified through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which including the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase RAF followed by MEK and extracellular signal related kinases ERK 1 and 2 [4]. After stimulation of BCR, CD19 is phosphorylated by Lyn. Phosphorylated CD19 activates PI3K by binding to the p85 subunit of PI3K and produce phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) from PIP2, and PIP3 transmits signals downstream [5].

Central process of T cells responding to specific antigens is the binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) to specific peptides bound to the major histocompatibility complex which expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Once TCR connected with its ligand, the ζ-chain–associated protein kinase 70 molecules (Zap-70) are recruited to the TCR-CD3 site and activated, resulting in an initiation of several signaling cascades. Once stimulation, Zap-70 forms complexes with several molecules including SLP-76; and a sequential protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK), and MAP kinase (MAPK) [6]. Two MAPK kinases, MKK4 and MKK7, have been reported to be the primary activators of JNK. MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6 are activators of P38 MAP kinase [7]. MAP kinase pathways are major pathways induced by TCR stimulation, and they play a key role in T-cell responses.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) binds to the cytosolic domain of CD28, leading to conversion of PIP2 to PIP3, activation of PKB (Akt) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), and subsequent signaling transduction [8].

 

References

[1] Kawai T, Akira S. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors[J]. Nature immunology, 2010, 11(5): 373-384.

[2] Kawai T, Akira S. Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity[J]. Immunity, 2011, 34(5): 637-650.

[3] Packard T A, Cambier J C. B lymphocyte antigen receptor signaling: initiation, amplification, and regulation[J]. F1000Prime Rep, 2013, 5(40.10): 12703.

[4] Zhong Y, Byrd J C, Dubovsky J A. The B-cell receptor pathway: a critical component of healthy and malignant immune biology[C]//Seminars in hematology. WB Saunders, 2014, 51(3): 206-218.

[5] Baba Y, Matsumoto M, Kurosaki T. Calcium signaling in B cells: regulation of cytosolic Ca 2+ increase and its sensor molecules, STIM1 and STIM2[J]. Molecular immunology, 2014, 62(2): 339-343.

[6] Adachi K, Davis M M. T-cell receptor ligation induces distinct signaling pathways in naive vs. antigen-experienced T cells[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011, 108(4): 1549-1554.

[7] Rincón M, Flavell R A, Davis R A. The Jnk and P38 MAP kinase signaling pathways in T cell–mediated immune responses[J]. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2000, 28(9): 1328-1337.

[8] Bashour K T, Gondarenko A, Chen H, et al. CD28 and CD3 have complementary roles in T-cell traction forces[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014, 111(6): 2241-2246.

Targets for  Immunology/Inflammation

Products for  Immunology/Inflammation

  1. Cat.No. Product Name Information
  2. GC50569 NLRP3-IN-2

    NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor

     NLRP3-IN-2  Chemical Structure
  3. GC45194 α-(difluoromethyl)-DL-Arginine

    Bacteria synthesize the cellular growth factor putrescine through a number of pathways.

    α-(difluoromethyl)-DL-Arginine  Chemical Structure
  4. GC65446 α-Amyrin acetate α-Amyrin acetate  Chemical Structure
  5. GC45206 α-GalCer analog 8

    α-Galactosylceramide analog 8 (α-GalCer analog 8) is a triazole derivative of α-galactosylceramide.

    α-GalCer analog 8  Chemical Structure
  6. GC40262 α-Humulene α-Humulene is a sesquiterpene that has been found in C. α-Humulene  Chemical Structure
  7. GC45601 α-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester-d5   α-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester-d5  Chemical Structure
  8. GC41499 α-Phellandrene α-Phellandrene is a cyclic monoterpene that has been found in various plants, including Cannabis, and has diverse biological activities. α-Phellandrene  Chemical Structure
  9. GC63941 α-Solanine α-Solanine  Chemical Structure
  10. GC49467 β-Aescin A triterpenoid saponin with diverse biological activities β-Aescin  Chemical Structure
  11. GC45225 β-Apooxytetracycline β-Apooxytetracycline is a potential impurity found in commercial preparations of oxytetracycline. β-Apooxytetracycline  Chemical Structure
  12. GC45230 β-Defensin-3 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) β-Defensin-3 is a peptide with antimicrobial properties that protects the skin and mucosal membranes of the respiratory, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. β-Defensin-3 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  13. GC45231 β-Defensin-4 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) β-Defensin-4 is a peptide with antimicrobial properties that protects the skin and mucosal membranes of the respiratory, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. β-Defensin-4 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  14. GC41623 β-Elemonic Acid β-Elemonic acid is a triterpene isolated from Boswellia (Burseraceae) that exhibits anticancer activity. β-Elemonic Acid  Chemical Structure
  15. GC64619 β-Ionone β-Ionone  Chemical Structure
  16. GC41502 β-Myrcene β-Myrcene is a terpene that has been found in Cannabis and has antioxidative properties. β-Myrcene  Chemical Structure
  17. GC45604 β-Rubromycin   β-Rubromycin  Chemical Structure
  18. GC40790 γ-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is an ω-6 fatty acid which can be elongated to arachidonic acid for endogenous eicosanoid synthesis. γ-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester  Chemical Structure
  19. GC45238 δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide is a potential impurity found in commercial preparations of triamcinolone acetonide. δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide  Chemical Structure
  20. GC40307 δ2-cis-Hexadecenoic Acid One of the first organisms in which quorum sensing was observed were Myxobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria, found mainly in soil and also common to marine and freshwater systems. δ2-cis-Hexadecenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  21. GC41393 ω-3 Arachidonic Acid methyl ester ω-3 Fatty acids, represented primarily by docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and α-linoleate, are essential dietary nutrients required for normal growth and development. ω-3 Arachidonic Acid methyl ester  Chemical Structure
  22. GC45713 (±)-α-Tocopherol Acetate (±)-α-Tocopherol Acetate  Chemical Structure
  23. GC52010 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z),15(Z)-Octadecadienoic Acid An oxylipin gut microbiota metabolite (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z),15(Z)-Octadecadienoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  24. GC52013 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid An oxylipin and metabolite of linoleic acid (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  25. GC40112 (±)-Climbazole-d4 (±)-Climbazole-d4 is intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of climbazole by GC- or LC-MS. (±)-Climbazole-d4  Chemical Structure
  26. GC50708 (±)-ML 209 (±)-ML 209  Chemical Structure
  27. GC39271 (±)-Naringenin (±)-Naringenin  Chemical Structure
  28. GC41212 (±)10(11)-EpDPA Cytochrome P450 metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids produces numerous bioactive epoxide regioisomers. (±)10(11)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  29. GC40466 (±)11(12)-EET

    (±)11(12)-EET is a fully racemic version of the R/S enantiomeric forms biosynthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    (±)11(12)-EET  Chemical Structure
  30. GC40467 (±)11-HETE (±)11-HETE is one of the six monohydroxy fatty acids produced by the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid. (±)11-HETE  Chemical Structure
  31. GC40802 (±)12(13)-DiHOME

    (±)12(13)-DiHOME is the diol form of (±)12(13)-EpOME, a cytochrome P450-derived epoxide of linoleic acid also known as isoleukotoxin.

    (±)12(13)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  32. GC41191 (±)13(14)-EpDPA Cytochrome P450 metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids produces numerous bioactive epoxide regioisomers. (±)13(14)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  33. GC40355 (±)13-HpODE

    (±)13-HpODE is a racemic mixture of hydroperoxides derived non-enzymatically from linoleic acid through the action of reactive oxygen species.

    (±)13-HpODE  Chemical Structure
  34. GC41288 (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide is an ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxide. (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide  Chemical Structure
  35. GC40362 (±)18-HEPE (±)18-HEPE is produced by non-enzymatic oxidation of EPA. (±)18-HEPE  Chemical Structure
  36. GC41655 (±)19(20)-EDP Ethanolamide (±)19(20)-EDP ethanolamide is an ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxide and cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonist (EC50s = 108 and 280 nM for CB1 and CB2, respectively). (±)19(20)-EDP Ethanolamide  Chemical Structure
  37. GC40270 (±)5(6)-DiHET

    5(6)-DiHET is a fully racemic version of the enantiomeric forms biosynthesized from 5(6)-EET by epoxide hydrolases.

    (±)5(6)-DiHET  Chemical Structure
  38. GC41203 (±)7(8)-EpDPA Docosahexaenoic acid is the most abundant ω-3 fatty acid in neural tissues, especially in the brain and retina. (±)7(8)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  39. GC40801 (±)9(10)-DiHOME Leukotoxin is the 9(10) epoxide of linoleic acid, generated by neutrophils during the oxidative burst. (±)9(10)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  40. GC46000 (•)-Drimenol (•)-Drimenol  Chemical Structure
  41. GC40809 (+)-β-Citronellol (+)-β-Citronellol is a monoterpene that has been found in Cannabis. (+)-β-Citronellol  Chemical Structure
  42. GN10654 (+)-Corynoline Extracted from corydalis sheareri S. Moore;Store the product in sealed,cool and dry condition (+)-Corynoline  Chemical Structure
  43. GC45263 (+)-D-threo-PDMP (hydrochloride) (+)-D-threo-PDMP is a ceramide analog and is one of the four possible stereoisomers of PDMP. (+)-D-threo-PDMP (hydrochloride)  Chemical Structure
  44. GC31691 (+)-DHMEQ ((1R,2R,6R)-Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin) (+)-DHMEQ ((1R,2R,6R)-Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin)  Chemical Structure
  45. GC45266 (+)-Macrosphelide A (+)-Macrosphelide A is a fungal metabolite originally isolated from Microsphaeropsis. (+)-Macrosphelide A  Chemical Structure
  46. GC40266 (+)-Praeruptorin A (+)-Praeruptorin A is a coumarin derivative originally isolated from P. (+)-Praeruptorin A  Chemical Structure
  47. GC18749 (+)-Rugulosin (+)-Rugulosin is a pigment and mycotoxin produced by certain fungi. (+)-Rugulosin  Chemical Structure
  48. GC63969 (+)-Schisandrin B (+)-Schisandrin B  Chemical Structure
  49. GC40264 (+)-Valencene

    (+)-Valencene is a sesquiterpene that has been found in C.

    (+)-Valencene  Chemical Structure
  50. GC49502 (-)-β-Sesquiphellandrene A sesquiterpene with antiviral and anticancer activities (-)-β-Sesquiphellandrene  Chemical Structure
  51. GC32705 (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin) (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin)  Chemical Structure
  52. GC14049 (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) Antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antitumor agent (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)  Chemical Structure
  53. GC45248 (-)-FINO2 (-)-FINO2 is a ferroptosis-inducing peroxide compound that indirectly inhibits glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and oxidizes iron. (-)-FINO2  Chemical Structure
  54. GC38316 (-)-Limonene (-)-Limonene  Chemical Structure
  55. GC45251 (-)-Neplanocin A S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of SAH to adenosine and homocysteine. (-)-Neplanocin A  Chemical Structure
  56. GC45272 (-)-Rasfonin   (-)-Rasfonin  Chemical Structure
  57. GC40803 (25S)-δ7-Dafachronic Acid During unfavorable environmental conditions, C. (25S)-δ7-Dafachronic Acid  Chemical Structure
  58. GC41700 (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (CSTMP) is a stilbene derivative with antioxidant and anticancer activities. (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine  Chemical Structure
  59. GC61668 (E)-3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid (E)-3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid  Chemical Structure
  60. GC41702 (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil (BVU) is a pyrimidine base and an inactive metabolite of the antiviral agents sorivudine and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) that may be regenerated to BVDU in vivo. (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil  Chemical Structure
  61. GC41703 (E)-C-HDMAPP (ammonium salt) Synthetic and natural alkyl phosphates, also known as phosphoantigens, stimulate the proliferation of γδ-T lymphocytes. (E)-C-HDMAPP (ammonium salt)  Chemical Structure
  62. GC39747 (E/Z)-GSK5182 (E/Z)-GSK5182  Chemical Structure
  63. GC61564 (E/Z)-IT-603 (E/Z)-IT-603  Chemical Structure
  64. GC41721 (R)-α-Lipoic Acid (R)-α-Lipoic acid is the naturally occurring enantiomer of lipoic acid, a cyclic disulfide antioxidant. (R)-α-Lipoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  65. GC13030 (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen Inhibitor of Cox-1 and Cox-2 (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen  Chemical Structure
  66. GC41620 (R)-(-)-Mellein (R)-(-)-Mellein is a dihydroisocoumarin compound produced by A. (R)-(-)-Mellein  Chemical Structure
  67. GC41712 (R)-3-hydroxy Myristic Acid Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are components of the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. (R)-3-hydroxy Myristic Acid  Chemical Structure
  68. GC65610 (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone  Chemical Structure
  69. GC65373 (R)-IL-17 modulator 4 (R)-IL-17 modulator 4  Chemical Structure
  70. GC12578 (R)-Lisofylline anti-inflammatory agent (R)-Lisofylline  Chemical Structure
  71. GC52185 (R,S)-Anatabine-d4 (R,S)-Anatabine-d4  Chemical Structure
  72. GC39321 (Rac)-Myrislignan (Rac)-Myrislignan  Chemical Structure
  73. GC52192 (S)-4'-nitro-Blebbistatin (S)-4'-nitro-Blebbistatin  Chemical Structure
  74. GC11867 (S)-Lisofylline inactive optical enantiomer of (R)-LSF, an anti-inflammatory agent (S)-Lisofylline  Chemical Structure
  75. GC13427 (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate iNOS inhibitor (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate  Chemical Structure
  76. GC41740 (S)-p38 MAPK Inhibitor III (S)-p38 MAPK inhibitor III is a methylsulfanylimidazole that inhibits p38 MAP kinase (IC50 = 0.90 μM in vitro). (S)-p38 MAPK Inhibitor III  Chemical Structure
  77. GC38880 (Z)-Leukadherin-1 (Z)-Leukadherin-1  Chemical Structure
  78. GC18787 (±)-Dunnione (±)-Dunnione is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone with diverse biological activities. (±)-Dunnione  Chemical Structure
  79. GC13662 (±)-Lisofylline anti-inflammatory agent (±)-Lisofylline  Chemical Structure
  80. GC46054 1β-Acetoxypolygodial 1β-Acetoxypolygodial  Chemical Structure
  81. GC45285 1,2,3-Trihexanoyl-rac-glycerol   1,2,3-Trihexanoyl-rac-glycerol  Chemical Structure
  82. GC46042 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-13C-sn-glycero-3-PC 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-13C-sn-glycero-3-PC  Chemical Structure
  83. GC45781 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-d31-sn-glycero-3-PC 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-d31-sn-glycero-3-PC  Chemical Structure
  84. GC41837 1,3,7-Trimethyluric Acid

    1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid is a methyl derivative of uric acid and a product of C-8 oxidation of caffeine by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    1,3,7-Trimethyluric Acid  Chemical Structure
  85. GC35037 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid  Chemical Structure
  86. GC41855 1,3-Distearoyl-2-Oleoyl-rac-glycerol 1,3-Distearoyl-2-oleoyl-rac-glycerol is a triacylglycerol that contains stearic acid at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions and oleic acid at the sn-2 position. 1,3-Distearoyl-2-Oleoyl-rac-glycerol  Chemical Structure
  87. GC11173 1,3-PBIT (dihydrobromide) potent inhibitor of iNOS 1,3-PBIT (dihydrobromide)  Chemical Structure
  88. GC33314 1,4-Chrysenequinone (Chrysene-1,4-dione) 1,4-Chrysenequinone (Chrysene-1,4-dione)  Chemical Structure
  89. GC14627 1,4-PBIT (dihydrobromide) potent inhibitor of purified human iNOS and nNOS 1,4-PBIT (dihydrobromide)  Chemical Structure
  90. GC40706 1,6-Dimethoxyphenazine 1,6-Dimethoxyphenazine is a bacterial metabolite that has been found in S. 1,6-Dimethoxyphenazine  Chemical Structure
  91. GC41986 1-Arachidonoyl Lysophosphatidic Acid (ammonium salt)

    1-Arachidonoyl lysophosphatidic acid is a phospholipid containing arachidonic acid at the sn-1 position.

    1-Arachidonoyl Lysophosphatidic Acid (ammonium salt)  Chemical Structure
  92. GC41990 1-Decanoyl-rac-glycerol 1-Decanoyl-rac-glycerol is a monoacylglycerol that contains decanoic acid at the sn-1 position. 1-Decanoyl-rac-glycerol  Chemical Structure
  93. GC52186 1-Docosahexaenoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-PC 1-Docosahexaenoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-PC  Chemical Structure
  94. GC45957 1-Heptadecanoyl-rac-glycerol 1-Heptadecanoyl-rac-glycerol  Chemical Structure
  95. GC49495 1-Isothiocyanato-6-(methylsulfenyl)-hexane An isothiocyanate with diverse biological activities 1-Isothiocyanato-6-(methylsulfenyl)-hexane  Chemical Structure
  96. GC45696 1-Lauroyl-rac-glycerol 1-Lauroyl-rac-glycerol  Chemical Structure
  97. GC41998 1-Methyl-4-imidazoleacetic Acid (hydrochloride) 1-Methyl-4-imidazoleacetic acid (MIMA) is a stable metabolite of histamine that is produced by the oxidation of the primary metabolite, N-methylhistamine. 1-Methyl-4-imidazoleacetic Acid (hydrochloride)  Chemical Structure
  98. GC13379 1-Naphthyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dual 5-lipoxygenase and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 inhibitor 1-Naphthyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate  Chemical Structure
  99. GC18235 1-O-Hexadecyl-sn-glycerol

    1-O-Hexadecyl-sn-glycerol is a bioactive alkyl glyceryl ether.

    1-O-Hexadecyl-sn-glycerol  Chemical Structure
  100. GC42010 1-Octanoyl-rac-glycerol 1-Octanoyl-rac-glycerol is a monoacylglycerol that contains octanoic acid at the sn-1 position. 1-Octanoyl-rac-glycerol  Chemical Structure
  101. GC40910 1-Oleoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-PE 1-Oleoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-PE is a naturally-occurring lysophospholipid and an analog of plasmalogen lysophosphatidylethanolamine. 1-Oleoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-PE  Chemical Structure

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