Home >> Signaling Pathways >> Immunology/Inflammation


The immune and inflammation-related pathway including the Toll-like receptors pathway, the B cell receptor signaling pathway, the T cell receptor signaling pathway, etc.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in host cell recognition and responses to microbial pathogens. TLR4 initially recruits TIRAP and MyD88. MyD88 then recruits IRAKs, TRAF6, and the TAK1 complex, leading to early-stage activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases [1]. TLR4 is endocytosed and delivered to intracellular vesicles and forms a complex with TRAM and TRIF, which then recruits TRAF3 and the protein kinases TBK1 and IKKi. TBK1 and IKKi catalyze the phosphorylation of IRF3, leading to the expression of type I IFN [2].

BCR signaling is initiated through ligation of mIg under conditions that induce phosphorylation of the ITAMs in CD79, leading to the activation of Syk. Once Syk is activated, the BCR signal is transmitted via a series of proteins associated with the adaptor protein B-cell linker (Blnk, SLP-65). Blnk binds CD79a via non-ITAM tyrosines and is phosphorylated by Syk. Phospho-Blnk acts as a scaffold for the assembly of the other components, including Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), Vav 1, and phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLCγ2) [3]. Following the assembly of the BCR-signalosome, GRB2 binds and activates the Ras-guanine exchange factor SOS, which in turn activates the small GTPase RAS. The original RAS signal is transmitted and amplified through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which including the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase RAF followed by MEK and extracellular signal related kinases ERK 1 and 2 [4]. After stimulation of BCR, CD19 is phosphorylated by Lyn. Phosphorylated CD19 activates PI3K by binding to the p85 subunit of PI3K and produce phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) from PIP2, and PIP3 transmits signals downstream [5].

Central process of T cells responding to specific antigens is the binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) to specific peptides bound to the major histocompatibility complex which expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Once TCR connected with its ligand, the ζ-chain–associated protein kinase 70 molecules (Zap-70) are recruited to the TCR-CD3 site and activated, resulting in an initiation of several signaling cascades. Once stimulation, Zap-70 forms complexes with several molecules including SLP-76; and a sequential protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK), and MAP kinase (MAPK) [6]. Two MAPK kinases, MKK4 and MKK7, have been reported to be the primary activators of JNK. MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6 are activators of P38 MAP kinase [7]. MAP kinase pathways are major pathways induced by TCR stimulation, and they play a key role in T-cell responses.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) binds to the cytosolic domain of CD28, leading to conversion of PIP2 to PIP3, activation of PKB (Akt) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), and subsequent signaling transduction [8].



[1] Kawai T, Akira S. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors[J]. Nature immunology, 2010, 11(5): 373-384.

[2] Kawai T, Akira S. Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity[J]. Immunity, 2011, 34(5): 637-650.

[3] Packard T A, Cambier J C. B lymphocyte antigen receptor signaling: initiation, amplification, and regulation[J]. F1000Prime Rep, 2013, 5(40.10): 12703.

[4] Zhong Y, Byrd J C, Dubovsky J A. The B-cell receptor pathway: a critical component of healthy and malignant immune biology[C]//Seminars in hematology. WB Saunders, 2014, 51(3): 206-218.

[5] Baba Y, Matsumoto M, Kurosaki T. Calcium signaling in B cells: regulation of cytosolic Ca 2+ increase and its sensor molecules, STIM1 and STIM2[J]. Molecular immunology, 2014, 62(2): 339-343.

[6] Adachi K, Davis M M. T-cell receptor ligation induces distinct signaling pathways in naive vs. antigen-experienced T cells[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011, 108(4): 1549-1554.

[7] Rincón M, Flavell R A, Davis R A. The Jnk and P38 MAP kinase signaling pathways in T cell–mediated immune responses[J]. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2000, 28(9): 1328-1337.

[8] Bashour K T, Gondarenko A, Chen H, et al. CD28 and CD3 have complementary roles in T-cell traction forces[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014, 111(6): 2241-2246.

Targets for  Immunology/Inflammation

Products for  Immunology/Inflammation

  1. Cat.No. Product Name Information
  2. GC50569 NLRP3-IN-2

    NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor

     NLRP3-IN-2  Chemical Structure
  3. GC45194 α-(difluoromethyl)-DL-Arginine

    Bacteria synthesize the cellular growth factor putrescine through a number of pathways.

    α-(difluoromethyl)-DL-Arginine  Chemical Structure
  4. GC65446 α-Amyrin acetate α-Amyrin acetate, a natural triterpenoid, has anti-inflammatory activity, antispasmodic profile and the relaxant effect. α-Amyrin acetate  Chemical Structure
  5. GC49838 α-Cortolone A metabolite of cortisol α-Cortolone  Chemical Structure
  6. GC48279 α-D-Glucose-1-phosphate (sodium salt hydrate) An intermediate in glycogen metabolism α-D-Glucose-1-phosphate (sodium salt hydrate)  Chemical Structure
  7. GC52253 α-Enolase (1-19)-biotin Peptide A biotinylated α-enolase peptide α-Enolase (1-19)-biotin Peptide  Chemical Structure
  8. GC45206 α-GalCer analog 8

    α-Galactosylceramide analog 8 (α-GalCer analog 8) is a triazole derivative of α-galactosylceramide.

    α-GalCer analog 8  Chemical Structure
  9. GC40262 α-Humulene α-Humulene is a sesquiterpene that has been found in C. α-Humulene  Chemical Structure
  10. GC45601 α-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester-d5   α-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester-d5  Chemical Structure
  11. GC48292 α-MSH (human, mouse, rat, porcine, bovine, ovine) (trifluoroacetate salt) α-MSH (α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone) TFA, an endogenous neuropeptide, is an endogenous melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) agonist with anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. α-MSH (human, mouse, rat, porcine, bovine, ovine) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  12. GC41499 α-Phellandrene α-Phellandrene is a cyclic monoterpene that has been found in various plants, including Cannabis, and has diverse biological activities. α-Phellandrene  Chemical Structure
  13. GC63941 α-Solanine α-solanine, a bioactive component and one of the major steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes, has been observed to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. α-Solanine  Chemical Structure
  14. GC67618 α-Tocopherol phosphate disodium α-Tocopherol phosphate (alpha-Tocopherol phosphate) disodium, a promising antioxidant, can protect against long-wave UVA1 induced cell death and scavenge UVA1 induced ROS in a skin cell model. α-Tocopherol phosphate disodium possesses therapeutic potential in the inhibition of apoptosis and increases the migratory capacity of endothelial progenitor cells under high-glucose/hypoxic conditions and promotes angiogenesis. α-Tocopherol phosphate disodium  Chemical Structure
  15. GC49467 β-Aescin A triterpenoid saponin with diverse biological activities β-Aescin  Chemical Structure
  16. GC37999 β-Anhydroicaritin β-Anhydroicaritin is isolated from Boswellia carterii Birdware, has important biological and pharmacological effects, such as antiosteoporosis, estrogen regulation and antitumor properties. β-Anhydroicaritin  Chemical Structure
  17. GC45225 β-Apooxytetracycline β-Apooxytetracycline is a potential impurity found in commercial preparations of oxytetracycline. β-Apooxytetracycline  Chemical Structure
  18. GC48920 β-Carboline-1-carboxylic Acid An alkaloid with diverse biological activities β-Carboline-1-carboxylic Acid  Chemical Structure
  19. GC66870 β-D-Glucan β-D-glucan is a natural non-digestible polysaccharide and high biocompatibility that can be selectively recognized by recognition receptors such as Dectin-1 and Toll-like receptors as well as being easily internalized by murine or human macrophages, which is likely to attribute to a target delivery. β-d-glucan is an enteric delivery vehicle for probiotics. β-D-Glucan  Chemical Structure
  20. GC48998 β-Defensin-1 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide β-Defensin-1 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  21. GC48298 β-Defensin-2 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide β-Defensin-2 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  22. GC45230 β-Defensin-3 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) β-Defensin-3 is a peptide with antimicrobial properties that protects the skin and mucosal membranes of the respiratory, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. β-Defensin-3 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  23. GC45231 β-Defensin-4 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) β-Defensin-4 is a peptide with antimicrobial properties that protects the skin and mucosal membranes of the respiratory, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. β-Defensin-4 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  24. GC41623 β-Elemonic Acid β-Elemonic acid is a triterpene isolated from Boswellia (Burseraceae) that exhibits anticancer activity. β-Elemonic Acid  Chemical Structure
  25. GC49769 β-Glucogallin A plant metabolite and an aldose reductase 2 inhibitor β-Glucogallin  Chemical Structure
  26. GC64619 β-Ionone β-Ionone is effective in the induction of apoptosis in gastric adenocarcinoma SGC7901 cells. Anti-cancer activity. β-Ionone  Chemical Structure
  27. GC41502 β-Myrcene β-Myrcene is a terpene that has been found in Cannabis and has antioxidative properties. β-Myrcene  Chemical Structure
  28. GC45604 β-Rubromycin β-Rubromycin is a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) RNA-directed DNA polymeras (reverse transcriptase). β-Rubromycin  Chemical Structure
  29. GC52400 γ-Glu-Ala (trifluoroacetate salt) A dipeptide γ-Glu-Ala (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  30. GC48312 γ-Glu-Cys (ammonium salt) An intermediate in GSH synthesis γ-Glu-Cys (ammonium salt)  Chemical Structure
  31. GC45238 δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide is a potential impurity found in commercial preparations of triamcinolone acetonide. δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide  Chemical Structure
  32. GC40307 δ2-cis-Hexadecenoic Acid One of the first organisms in which quorum sensing was observed were Myxobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria, found mainly in soil and also common to marine and freshwater systems. δ2-cis-Hexadecenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  33. GC41393 ω-3 Arachidonic Acid methyl ester ω-3 Fatty acids, represented primarily by docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and α-linoleate, are essential dietary nutrients required for normal growth and development. ω-3 Arachidonic Acid methyl ester  Chemical Structure
  34. GC45713 (±)-α-Tocopherol Acetate (±)-α-Tocopherol Acetate ((±)-Vitamin E acetate), is a orally active synthetic form of vitamin E. (±)-α-Tocopherol Acetate  Chemical Structure
  35. GC67191 (±)-α-Tocopherol nicotinate (±)-α-Tocopherol nicotinate, vitamin E - nicotinate, is an orally active fat-soluble antioxidant that prevents lipid peroxidation in cell membranes. (±)-α-Tocopherol nicotinate is hydrolysed in the blood to α -tocopherol and niacin and may be used in studies of related vascular diseases. (±)-α-Tocopherol nicotinate  Chemical Structure
  36. GC52010 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z),15(Z)-Octadecadienoic Acid An oxylipin gut microbiota metabolite (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z),15(Z)-Octadecadienoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  37. GC52013 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid An oxylipin and metabolite of linoleic acid (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  38. GC52421 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid-d5 An internal standard for the quantification of (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid-d5  Chemical Structure
  39. GC40112 (±)-Climbazole-d4 (±)-Climbazole-d4 is intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of climbazole by GC- or LC-MS. (±)-Climbazole-d4  Chemical Structure
  40. GC50708 (±)-ML 209 An RORγt antagonist (±)-ML 209  Chemical Structure
  41. GC39271 (±)-Naringenin A citrusderived flavonoid (±)-Naringenin  Chemical Structure
  42. GC41212 (±)10(11)-EpDPA Cytochrome P450 metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids produces numerous bioactive epoxide regioisomers. (±)10(11)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  43. GC40466 (±)11(12)-EET

    (±)11(12)-EET is a fully racemic version of the R/S enantiomeric forms biosynthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    (±)11(12)-EET  Chemical Structure
  44. GC40467 (±)11-HETE (±)11-HETE is one of the six monohydroxy fatty acids produced by the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid. (±)11-HETE  Chemical Structure
  45. GC40802 (±)12(13)-DiHOME

    (±)12(13)-DiHOME is the diol form of (±)12(13)-EpOME, a cytochrome P450-derived epoxide of linoleic acid also known as isoleukotoxin.

    (±)12(13)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  46. GC41191 (±)13(14)-EpDPA Cytochrome P450 metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids produces numerous bioactive epoxide regioisomers. (±)13(14)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  47. GC40355 (±)13-HpODE

    (±)13-HpODE is a racemic mixture of hydroperoxides derived non-enzymatically from linoleic acid through the action of reactive oxygen species.

    (±)13-HpODE  Chemical Structure
  48. GC41288 (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide is an ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxide. (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide  Chemical Structure
  49. GC40362 (±)18-HEPE (±)18-HEPE is produced by non-enzymatic oxidation of EPA. (±)18-HEPE  Chemical Structure
  50. GC41655 (±)19(20)-EDP Ethanolamide (±)19(20)-EDP ethanolamide is an ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxide and cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonist (EC50s = 108 and 280 nM for CB1 and CB2, respectively). (±)19(20)-EDP Ethanolamide  Chemical Structure
  51. GC40270 (±)5(6)-DiHET

    5(6)-DiHET is a fully racemic version of the enantiomeric forms biosynthesized from 5(6)-EET by epoxide hydrolases.

    (±)5(6)-DiHET  Chemical Structure
  52. GC41203 (±)7(8)-EpDPA Docosahexaenoic acid is the most abundant ω-3 fatty acid in neural tissues, especially in the brain and retina. (±)7(8)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  53. GC40801 (±)9(10)-DiHOME Leukotoxin is the 9(10) epoxide of linoleic acid, generated by neutrophils during the oxidative burst. (±)9(10)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  54. GC46000 (•)-Drimenol A sesquiterpene alcohol (•)-Drimenol  Chemical Structure
  55. GC40809 (+)-β-Citronellol (+)-β-Citronellol (D-Citronellol) is an alcoholic monoterpene found in geranium essential oil. (+)-β-Citronellol  Chemical Structure
  56. GC49268 (+)-δ-Cadinene A sesquiterpene with antimicrobial and anticancer activities (+)-δ-Cadinene  Chemical Structure
  57. GC45263 (+)-D-threo-PDMP (hydrochloride) (+)-D-threo-PDMP is a ceramide analog and is one of the four possible stereoisomers of PDMP. (+)-D-threo-PDMP (hydrochloride)  Chemical Structure
  58. GC31691 (+)-DHMEQ (+)-DHMEQ is an activator of antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. (+)-DHMEQ  Chemical Structure
  59. GC45266 (+)-Macrosphelide A (+)-Macrosphelide A is a fungal metabolite originally isolated from Microsphaeropsis. (+)-Macrosphelide A  Chemical Structure
  60. GC40266 (+)-Praeruptorin A (+)-Praeruptorin A is a coumarin derivative originally isolated from P. (+)-Praeruptorin A  Chemical Structure
  61. GC18749 (+)-Rugulosin (+)-Rugulosin is a pigment and mycotoxin produced by certain fungi. (+)-Rugulosin  Chemical Structure
  62. GC63969 (+)-Schisandrin B (+)-Schisandrin B is an enantiomer of Schisandrin B. (+)-Schisandrin B  Chemical Structure
  63. GC40264 (+)-Valencene

    (+)-Valencene is a sesquiterpene that has been found in C.

    (+)-Valencene  Chemical Structure
  64. GC49502 (-)-β-Sesquiphellandrene A sesquiterpene with antiviral and anticancer activities (-)-β-Sesquiphellandrene  Chemical Structure
  65. GC32705 (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin) (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin) (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin) is a potent, selective and irreversible NF-κB inhibitor that covalently binds to a cysteine residue. (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin)  Chemical Structure
  66. GC14049 (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate sulfate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol in green tea that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. In addition, it inhibits the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase 1/2 (GDH1/2, GLUD1/2) .. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)  Chemical Structure
  67. GC45248 (-)-FINO2 (-)-FINO2 is a ferroptosis-inducing peroxide compound that indirectly inhibits glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and oxidizes iron. (-)-FINO2  Chemical Structure
  68. GC46245 (-)-G-Lactone A bicyclic γ-lactone (-)-G-Lactone  Chemical Structure
  69. GC38316 (-)-Limonene (-)-Limonene ((S)-(-)-Limonene) is a monoterpene found in many pine-needle oils and in turpentine. (-)-Limonene  Chemical Structure
  70. GC46247 (-)-Mycousnine A microbial metabolite with antibacterial and antifungal activities (-)-Mycousnine  Chemical Structure
  71. GC45251 (-)-Neplanocin A S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of SAH to adenosine and homocysteine. (-)-Neplanocin A  Chemical Structure
  72. GC45272 (-)-Rasfonin   (-)-Rasfonin  Chemical Structure
  73. GC40803 (25S)-δ7-Dafachronic Acid During unfavorable environmental conditions, C. (25S)-δ7-Dafachronic Acid  Chemical Structure
  74. GC52442 (D)-PPA 1 (trifluoroacetate salt) An inhibitor of the PD-1-PD-L1 protein-protein interaction (D)-PPA 1 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  75. GC41700 (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (CSTMP) is a stilbene derivative with antioxidant and anticancer activities. (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine  Chemical Structure
  76. GC61668 (E)-3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid (E)-3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid is the less active isomer of 3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid. (E)-3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid  Chemical Structure
  77. GC41702 (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil (BVU) is a pyrimidine base and an inactive metabolite of the antiviral agents sorivudine and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) that may be regenerated to BVDU in vivo. (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil  Chemical Structure
  78. GC49003 (E)-Ajoene A disulfide with diverse biological activities (E)-Ajoene  Chemical Structure
  79. GC41703 (E)-C-HDMAPP (ammonium salt) Synthetic and natural alkyl phosphates, also known as phosphoantigens, stimulate the proliferation of γδ-T lymphocytes. (E)-C-HDMAPP (ammonium salt)  Chemical Structure
  80. GC39747 (E/Z)-GSK5182 (E/Z)-GSK5182 is a racemic compound of (E)-GSK5182 and (Z)-GSK5182 isomers. (E/Z)-GSK5182  Chemical Structure
  81. GC61564 (E/Z)-IT-603 (E/Z)-IT-603 is a mixture of E-IT-603 and Z-IT-603 (IT-603). (E/Z)-IT-603  Chemical Structure
  82. GC41721 (R)-α-Lipoic Acid (R)-α-Lipoic acid is the naturally occurring enantiomer of lipoic acid, a cyclic disulfide antioxidant. (R)-α-Lipoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  83. GC49167 (R)-(+)-Trityl glycidyl ether A synthetic precursor (R)-(+)-Trityl glycidyl ether  Chemical Structure
  84. GC13030 (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen Inhibitor of Cox-1 and Cox-2 (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen  Chemical Structure
  85. GC69823 (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen-d3

    (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen-d3 is the deuterated form of (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen. (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen is the R enantiomer of Ibuprofen, which has no effect on COX and can inhibit NF-κB activation. (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen has anti-inflammatory properties and can be used in pain relief research.

    (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen-d3  Chemical Structure
  86. GC41620 (R)-(-)-Mellein (R)-(-)-Mellein is an antibiotic isolated from culture fluids of this Aspergillus. (R)-(-)-Mellein  Chemical Structure
  87. GC41712 (R)-3-hydroxy Myristic Acid Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are components of the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. (R)-3-hydroxy Myristic Acid  Chemical Structure
  88. GC65610 (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone is a diarylheptanoid that can be found in Alpinia officinarum. (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone  Chemical Structure
  89. GC65373 (R)-IL-17 modulator 4 (R)-IL-17 modulator 4 is the R-configure of IL-17 modulator 4. (R)-IL-17 modulator 4  Chemical Structure
  90. GC12578 (R)-Lisofylline anti-inflammatory agent (R)-Lisofylline  Chemical Structure
  91. GC52185 (R,S)-Anatabine-d4 (R,S)-Anatabine-d4  Chemical Structure
  92. GC39321 (Rac)-Myrislignan (Rac)-Myrislignan is the racemate of Myrislignan. (Rac)-Myrislignan  Chemical Structure
  93. GC66334 (Rac)-PF-184 hydrate (Rac)-PF-184 hydrate is a potent inhibitory factor-κB kinase 2 (IKK-2) inhibitor with an IC50 of 37 nM. (Rac)-PF-184 hydrate has anti-inflammatory effects. (Rac)-PF-184 hydrate  Chemical Structure
  94. GC69799 (Rac)-ZLc-002

    (Rac)-ZLc-002 is an inhibitor that interacts with the binding protein between nNOS and nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1AP). It inhibits inflammatory pain and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, and synergistically reduces tumor cell viability with Paclitaxel.

    (Rac)-ZLc-002  Chemical Structure
  95. GC46345 (S)-(-)-Perillaldehyde (S)-(-)-Perillaldehyde is a major component in the essential oil containing in Perillae Herba. (S)-(-)-Perillaldehyde  Chemical Structure
  96. GC49028 (S)-3-Thienylglycine A thienyl-containing amino acid (S)-3-Thienylglycine  Chemical Structure
  97. GC52192 (S)-4'-nitro-Blebbistatin (S)-4'-nitro-Blebbistatin is a non-cytotoxic, photostable, fluorescent and specific Myosin II inhibitor, usd in the study of the specific role of myosin II in physiological, developmental, and cell biological studies. (S)-4'-nitro-Blebbistatin  Chemical Structure
  98. GC48719 (S)-Canadine (S)-Canadine is an alkaloid and intermediate in the biosynthesis of berberine with insecticidal activity. (S)-Canadine  Chemical Structure
  99. GC46352 (S)-DO271 An inactive control for DO264 (S)-DO271  Chemical Structure
  100. GC11867 (S)-Lisofylline inactive optical enantiomer of (R)-LSF, an anti-inflammatory agent (S)-Lisofylline  Chemical Structure
  101. GC13427 (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate iNOS inhibitor (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate  Chemical Structure

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