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Immunology/Inflammation

The immune and inflammation-related pathway including the Toll-like receptors pathway, the B cell receptor signaling pathway, the T cell receptor signaling pathway, etc.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in host cell recognition and responses to microbial pathogens. TLR4 initially recruits TIRAP and MyD88. MyD88 then recruits IRAKs, TRAF6, and the TAK1 complex, leading to early-stage activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases [1]. TLR4 is endocytosed and delivered to intracellular vesicles and forms a complex with TRAM and TRIF, which then recruits TRAF3 and the protein kinases TBK1 and IKKi. TBK1 and IKKi catalyze the phosphorylation of IRF3, leading to the expression of type I IFN [2].

BCR signaling is initiated through ligation of mIg under conditions that induce phosphorylation of the ITAMs in CD79, leading to the activation of Syk. Once Syk is activated, the BCR signal is transmitted via a series of proteins associated with the adaptor protein B-cell linker (Blnk, SLP-65). Blnk binds CD79a via non-ITAM tyrosines and is phosphorylated by Syk. Phospho-Blnk acts as a scaffold for the assembly of the other components, including Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), Vav 1, and phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLCγ2) [3]. Following the assembly of the BCR-signalosome, GRB2 binds and activates the Ras-guanine exchange factor SOS, which in turn activates the small GTPase RAS. The original RAS signal is transmitted and amplified through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which including the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase RAF followed by MEK and extracellular signal related kinases ERK 1 and 2 [4]. After stimulation of BCR, CD19 is phosphorylated by Lyn. Phosphorylated CD19 activates PI3K by binding to the p85 subunit of PI3K and produce phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) from PIP2, and PIP3 transmits signals downstream [5].

Central process of T cells responding to specific antigens is the binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) to specific peptides bound to the major histocompatibility complex which expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Once TCR connected with its ligand, the ζ-chain–associated protein kinase 70 molecules (Zap-70) are recruited to the TCR-CD3 site and activated, resulting in an initiation of several signaling cascades. Once stimulation, Zap-70 forms complexes with several molecules including SLP-76; and a sequential protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK), and MAP kinase (MAPK) [6]. Two MAPK kinases, MKK4 and MKK7, have been reported to be the primary activators of JNK. MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6 are activators of P38 MAP kinase [7]. MAP kinase pathways are major pathways induced by TCR stimulation, and they play a key role in T-cell responses.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) binds to the cytosolic domain of CD28, leading to conversion of PIP2 to PIP3, activation of PKB (Akt) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), and subsequent signaling transduction [8].

 

References

[1] Kawai T, Akira S. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors[J]. Nature immunology, 2010, 11(5): 373-384.

[2] Kawai T, Akira S. Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity[J]. Immunity, 2011, 34(5): 637-650.

[3] Packard T A, Cambier J C. B lymphocyte antigen receptor signaling: initiation, amplification, and regulation[J]. F1000Prime Rep, 2013, 5(40.10): 12703.

[4] Zhong Y, Byrd J C, Dubovsky J A. The B-cell receptor pathway: a critical component of healthy and malignant immune biology[C]//Seminars in hematology. WB Saunders, 2014, 51(3): 206-218.

[5] Baba Y, Matsumoto M, Kurosaki T. Calcium signaling in B cells: regulation of cytosolic Ca 2+ increase and its sensor molecules, STIM1 and STIM2[J]. Molecular immunology, 2014, 62(2): 339-343.

[6] Adachi K, Davis M M. T-cell receptor ligation induces distinct signaling pathways in naive vs. antigen-experienced T cells[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011, 108(4): 1549-1554.

[7] Rincón M, Flavell R A, Davis R A. The Jnk and P38 MAP kinase signaling pathways in T cell–mediated immune responses[J]. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2000, 28(9): 1328-1337.

[8] Bashour K T, Gondarenko A, Chen H, et al. CD28 and CD3 have complementary roles in T-cell traction forces[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014, 111(6): 2241-2246.

Products for  Immunology/Inflammation

  1. Cat.No. Product Name Information
  2. GC68461 TrxR-IN-5 TrxR-IN-5  Chemical Structure
  3. GC68452 2,4,6-Triiodophenol 2,4,6-Triiodophenol  Chemical Structure
  4. GC68432 DB-3-291 DB-3-291  Chemical Structure
  5. GC68386 CD73-IN-5 CD73-IN-5  Chemical Structure
  6. GC68379 L-Arginine-13C6,15N4 hydrochloride L-Arginine-13C6,15N4 hydrochloride  Chemical Structure
  7. GC68346 Uliledlimab Uliledlimab  Chemical Structure
  8. GC68344 Mupadolimab Mupadolimab  Chemical Structure
  9. GC68341 Nemolizumab Nemolizumab  Chemical Structure
  10. GC68336 Siltuximab Siltuximab  Chemical Structure
  11. GC68308 Bisdemethoxycurcumin-d8 Bisdemethoxycurcumin-d8  Chemical Structure
  12. GC68306 Deoxynyboquinone Deoxynyboquinone  Chemical Structure
  13. GC68294 ODN 1668 ODN 1668  Chemical Structure
  14. GC68293 ODN 1585 ODN 1585  Chemical Structure
  15. GC68292 ODN 2395 ODN 2395  Chemical Structure
  16. GC68230 MitoSOX Red MitoSOX Red  Chemical Structure
  17. GC68213 MitoBloCK-6 MitoBloCK-6  Chemical Structure
  18. GC68141 SEMBL SEMBL  Chemical Structure
  19. GC68081 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazine 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazine  Chemical Structure
  20. GC68051 Citric acid-d4 Citric acid-d4  Chemical Structure
  21. GC68044 2,4,6-Trihydroxybenzaldehyde 2,4,6-Trihydroxybenzaldehyde  Chemical Structure
  22. GC68043 2-tert-Butyl-1,4-benzoquinone 2-tert-Butyl-1,4-benzoquinone  Chemical Structure
  23. GC68039 Chlorin e6 trimethyl ester Chlorin e6 trimethyl ester  Chemical Structure
  24. GC68029 JPE-1375 JPE-1375  Chemical Structure
  25. GC67968 ALPK1-IN-2 ALPK1-IN-2  Chemical Structure
  26. GC67966 Methylstat Methylstat  Chemical Structure
  27. GC67936 Lupiwighteone Lupiwighteone  Chemical Structure
  28. GC67903 RIDR-PI-103 RIDR-PI-103  Chemical Structure
  29. GC67892 CHD-5 CHD-5  Chemical Structure
  30. GC67890 PHA 408 PHA 408  Chemical Structure
  31. GC67859 Clerodendrin Clerodendrin  Chemical Structure
  32. GC67792 NSC49652 NSC49652  Chemical Structure
  33. GC67748 Brodalumab Brodalumab  Chemical Structure
  34. GC67721 CP-447697 CP-447697  Chemical Structure
  35. GC67719 SN-001 SN-001  Chemical Structure
  36. GC67699 TLR8 agonist 5 TLR8 agonist 5  Chemical Structure
  37. GC52516 Erbstatin A tyrosine kinase inhibitor Erbstatin  Chemical Structure
  38. GC52514 Arachidonic Acid-d11 ethyl ester An internal standard for the quantification of arachidonic acid ethyl ester Arachidonic Acid-d11 ethyl ester  Chemical Structure
  39. GC52505 Ganglioside GT1b (bovine) (sodium salt) A sphingolipid Ganglioside GT1b (bovine) (sodium salt)  Chemical Structure
  40. GC52501 2',3'-Dideoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (lithium salt) An inhibitor of reverse transcriptases and DNA polymerases 2',3'-Dideoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (lithium salt)  Chemical Structure
  41. GC52499 Abz-Ala-Pro-Glu-Glu-Ile-Met-Arg-Arg-Gln-EDDnp (trifluoroacetate salt) A sensitive substrate for neutrophil elastase Abz-Ala-Pro-Glu-Glu-Ile-Met-Arg-Arg-Gln-EDDnp (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  42. GC52496 Sulfatide (bovine) (sodium salt) A mixture of isolated bovine sulfatides Sulfatide (bovine) (sodium salt)  Chemical Structure
  43. GC52492 Globotriaosylceramide (hydroxy) (porcine RBC) A sphingolipid Globotriaosylceramide (hydroxy) (porcine RBC)  Chemical Structure
  44. GC52491 Globotriaosylceramide (non-hydroxy) (porcine RBC) A sphingolipid Globotriaosylceramide (non-hydroxy) (porcine RBC)  Chemical Structure
  45. GC52489 Ceramide (hydroxy) (bovine spinal cord) A sphingolipid Ceramide (hydroxy) (bovine spinal cord)  Chemical Structure
  46. GC52487 Ganglioside GM4 (chicken egg) (ammonium salt) A sphingolipid Ganglioside GM4 (chicken egg) (ammonium salt)  Chemical Structure
  47. GC52486 Ceramide Phosphoethanolamine (bovine) A sphingolipid Ceramide Phosphoethanolamine (bovine)  Chemical Structure
  48. GC52485 Ceramide (non-hydroxy) (bovine spinal cord) A sphingolipid Ceramide (non-hydroxy) (bovine spinal cord)  Chemical Structure
  49. GC52483 Fucosylated Ganglioside GM1 (porcine) (ammonium salt) A sphingolipid Fucosylated Ganglioside GM1 (porcine) (ammonium salt)  Chemical Structure
  50. GC52476 Bax Inhibitor Peptide V5 (trifluoroacetate salt) A Bax inhibitor Bax Inhibitor Peptide V5 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  51. GC52475 Zanamivir-13C,15N2 (hydrate) An internal standard for the quantification of zanamivir Zanamivir-13C,15N2 (hydrate)  Chemical Structure
  52. GC52473 NVP-AAM077 An NMDA receptor antagonist NVP-AAM077  Chemical Structure
  53. GC52472 Inostamycin A (sodium salt) A bacterial metabolite with anticancer activity Inostamycin A (sodium salt)  Chemical Structure
  54. GC52471 7(S),10(S)-DiHOME An antibacterial hydroxy fatty acid 7(S),10(S)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  55. GC52469 CL2A-SN-38 (dichloroacetic acid salt) An antibody-drug conjugate containing SN-38 CL2A-SN-38 (dichloroacetic acid salt)  Chemical Structure
  56. GC52468 Benanomicin B A microbial metabolite with antifungal, fungicidal, and antiviral activities Benanomicin B  Chemical Structure
  57. GC52467 Cell Death Screening Library For screening a variety of cell death pathways Cell Death Screening Library  Chemical Structure
  58. GC52457 WRW4 (trifluoroacetate salt) A peptide antagonist of FPR2 and FPR3 WRW4 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  59. GC52455 Pixantrone-d8 (maleate) An internal standard for the quantification of pixantrone Pixantrone-d8 (maleate)  Chemical Structure
  60. GC52446 2-Nonylquinolin-4(1H)-one-d4 An internal standard for the quantification of 2-nonylquinolin-4(1H)-one 2-Nonylquinolin-4(1H)-one-d4  Chemical Structure
  61. GC52445 2-nonyl-3-hydroxy-4-Quinolone-d4 An internal standard for the quantification of 2-nonyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone 2-nonyl-3-hydroxy-4-Quinolone-d4  Chemical Structure
  62. GC52442 (D)-PPA 1 (trifluoroacetate salt) An inhibitor of the PD-1-PD-L1 protein-protein interaction (D)-PPA 1 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  63. GC52436 TRAP-6 amide (trifluoroacetate salt) A peptide PAR1 agonist TRAP-6 amide (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  64. GC52434 Marbofloxacin-d8 (hydrochloride) An internal standard for the quantification of marbofloxacin Marbofloxacin-d8 (hydrochloride)  Chemical Structure
  65. GC52427 Apelin-12 (human, mouse, rat, bovine) (acetate) An endogenous agonist of the APJ receptor Apelin-12 (human, mouse, rat, bovine) (acetate)  Chemical Structure
  66. GC52426 Chemerin-9 (human) (acetate) A peptide agonist of CMKLR1 and CMKLR2 Chemerin-9 (human) (acetate)  Chemical Structure
  67. GC52425 PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 (trifluoroacetate salt) A PD-1/PD-L1 interaction inhibitor PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  68. GC52424 Bradykinin Fragment (1-5) (trifluoroacetate salt) A metabolite of bradykinin Bradykinin Fragment (1-5) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  69. GC52423 10Panx (trifluoroacetate salt) A peptide inhibitor of PANX1 10Panx (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  70. GC52421 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid-d5 An internal standard for the quantification of (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid-d5  Chemical Structure
  71. GC52419 MOG (35-55) (mouse, rat) (trifluoroacetate salt) An MOG antigen peptide MOG (35-55) (mouse, rat) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  72. GC52416 Histatin 5 (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide Histatin 5 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  73. GC52413 5-Aminosalicylic Acid-d7 An internal standard for the quantification of 5-aminosalicylic acid 5-Aminosalicylic Acid-d7  Chemical Structure
  74. GC52412 TT-232 (trifluoroacetate salt) A synthetic peptide derivative of somatostatin TT-232 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  75. GC52406 AMPR-22 (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide AMPR-22 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  76. GC52400 γ-Glu-Ala (trifluoroacetate salt) A dipeptide γ-Glu-Ala (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  77. GC52395 Indolicidin (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide Indolicidin (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  78. GC52394 LC10 A lipidoid derivative of lithocholic acid LC10  Chemical Structure
  79. GC52385 Myelin Basic Protein (85-99) Peptide Antagonist (trifluoroacetate salt) An MBP (85-99) antagonist Myelin Basic Protein (85-99) Peptide Antagonist (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  80. GC52384 NFAT Inhibitor (cell-permeable) (trifluoroacetate salt) A cell-permeable form of NFAT inhibitor NFAT Inhibitor (cell-permeable) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  81. GC52380 AOD-9604 (acetate) A synthetic lipolytic peptide AOD-9604 (acetate)  Chemical Structure
  82. GC52378 Cecropin A (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide Cecropin A (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  83. GC52372 Ac-VDVAD-AFC (trifluoroacetate salt) A fluorogenic substrate for caspase-2 Ac-VDVAD-AFC (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  84. GC52371 Vimentin (G146R) (139-159)-biotin Peptide A biotinylated mutant vimentin peptide Vimentin (G146R) (139-159)-biotin Peptide  Chemical Structure
  85. GC52370 Citrullinated Vimentin (R144) (139-159)-biotin Peptide A biotinylated and citrullinated vimentin peptide Citrullinated Vimentin (R144) (139-159)-biotin Peptide  Chemical Structure
  86. GC52369 Cecropin B (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide Cecropin B (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  87. GC52367 Citrullinated Vimentin (G146R) (R144 + R146) (139-159)-biotin Peptide A biotinylated and citrullinated mutant vimentin peptide Citrullinated Vimentin (G146R) (R144 + R146) (139-159)-biotin Peptide  Chemical Structure
  88. GC52364 Vimentin (139-159)-biotin Peptide A biotinylated vimentin peptide Vimentin (139-159)-biotin Peptide  Chemical Structure
  89. GC52363 Citrullinated Histone H3 (R2 + R8 + R17) (2-22)-biotin Peptide A biotinylated and citrullinated histone H3 peptide Citrullinated Histone H3 (R2 + R8 + R17) (2-22)-biotin Peptide  Chemical Structure
  90. GC52358 Malachite Green (chloride) A triphenylmethane dye Malachite Green (chloride)  Chemical Structure
  91. GC52355 BimS BH3 (51-76) (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) A Bim-derived peptide BimS BH3 (51-76) (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  92. GC52351 Citrullinated α-Enolase (R8 + R14) (1-19)-biotin Peptide A biotinylated and citrullinated α-enolase peptide Citrullinated α-Enolase (R8 + R14) (1-19)-biotin Peptide  Chemical Structure
  93. GC52346 IDR 1002 (trifluoroacetate salt) A synthetic cationic innate defense regulator peptide IDR 1002 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  94. GC52344 Bak BH3 (72-87) (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) A Bak-derived peptide Bak BH3 (72-87) (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  95. GC52343 113-O12B An ionizable cationic lipidoid 113-O12B  Chemical Structure
  96. GC52342 P4pal10 (trifluoroacetate salt) A PAR4 and FPR2 antagonist and an FFAR2 agonist P4pal10 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  97. GC52334 ENPP1 Inhibitor 4e An ENPP1 inhibitor ENPP1 Inhibitor 4e  Chemical Structure
  98. GC52332 Arimoclomol A co-inducer of heat shock proteins Arimoclomol  Chemical Structure
  99. GC52329 Betamethasone-d5 An internal standard for the quantification of betamethasone Betamethasone-d5  Chemical Structure
  100. GC52326 Biotin-PEG4-LL-37 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) A biotinylated and pegylated form of LL-37 Biotin-PEG4-LL-37 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  101. GC52324 3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic Acid sulfate A metabolite of certain phenols and glycosides 3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic Acid sulfate  Chemical Structure

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