Home >> Signaling Pathways >> Proteases

Proteases

Proteases is a general term for a class of enzymes that hydrolyze protein peptide chains. According to the way they degrade polypeptides, they are divided into two categories: endopeptidases and telopeptidases. The former can cut the large molecular weight polypeptide chain from the middle to form prions and peptones with smaller molecular weights; the latter can be divided into carboxypeptidase and aminopeptidase, which respectively remove the peptide from the free carboxyl terminus or free amino terminus of the polypeptide one by one. Chain hydrolysis produces amino acids.

A general term for a class of enzymes that hydrolyze peptide bonds in proteins. According to the way they hydrolyze polypeptides, they can be divided into endopeptidases and exopeptidases. Endopeptidase cleaves the interior of the protein molecule to form smaller molecular weight peptones and peptones. Exopeptidase hydrolyzes peptide bonds one by one from the end of the free amino group or carboxyl group of protein molecules, and frees amino acids, the former is aminopeptidase and the latter is carboxypeptidase. Proteases can be classified into serine proteases, sulfhydryl proteases, metalloproteases and aspartic proteases according to their active centers and optimum pH. According to the optimum pH value of its reaction, it is divided into acidic protease, neutral protease and alkaline protease. The proteases used in industrial production are mainly endopeptidases.

Proteases are widely found in animal offal, plant stems and leaves, fruits and microorganisms. Microbial proteases are mainly produced by molds and bacteria, followed by yeast and actinomycetes.

Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of proteins. There are many kinds, the important ones are pepsin, trypsin, cathepsin, papain and subtilisin. Proteases have strict selectivity for the reaction substrates they act on. A protease can only act on certain peptide bonds in protein molecules, such as the peptide bonds formed by the hydrolysis of basic amino acids catalyzed by trypsin. Proteases are widely distributed, mainly in the digestive tract of humans and animals, and are abundant in plants and microorganisms. Due to limited animal and plant resources, the industrial production of protease preparations is mainly prepared by fermentation of microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terrestris.

Targets for  Proteases

Products for  Proteases

  1. Cat.No. Product Name Information
  2. GC11282 β-Estradiol

    β-Estradiol, Estradiol, 17β-Oestradiol, E2

    Sex hormone

     β-Estradiol  Chemical Structure
  3. GC41183 α-Carotene

    all-trans-α-Carotene

    α-Carotene is a precursor of vitamin A that has been found in various fruits and vegetables.

    α-Carotene  Chemical Structure
  4. GC45208 α-hydroxy Metoprolol α-hydroxy Metoprolol is an active metabolite of the β1-adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol. α-hydroxy Metoprolol  Chemical Structure
  5. GC48948 α-Ketoglutaric Acid (sodium salt)

    α-KGA, 2-Oxoglutaric Acid

    α-Ketoglutaric Acid (sodium salt) (Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid Sodium) is an intermediate in the production of ATP or GTP in the Krebs cycle. α-Ketoglutaric Acid (sodium salt)  Chemical Structure
  6. GC40718 α-Muricholic Acid

    5β-Cholanic Acid-3α,6β,7α-triol

    α-Muricholic acid is a murine-specific primary bile acid.

    α-Muricholic Acid  Chemical Structure
  7. GC40480 α-Phenyl-α-(2-pyridyl)acetonitrile

    NSC 16276, 2-Pyridylphenylacetonitrile

    α-Phenyl-α-(2-pyridyl)thioacetamide, also known as antigastrin and SC-15396, is an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. α-Phenyl-α-(2-pyridyl)acetonitrile  Chemical Structure
  8. GC38287 α-Pyridone α-Pyridone is an endogenous metabolite. α-Pyridone  Chemical Structure
  9. GC38000 β-Boswellic acid A pentacyclic triterpene with diverse bioactivities β-Boswellic acid  Chemical Structure
  10. GC63275 β-Cryptoxanthin β-Cryptoxanthin ((3R)-β-Cryptoxanthin), isolated from Satsuma mandarin orange, is an oxygenated carotenoid and a potent antioxidant. β-Cryptoxanthin  Chemical Structure
  11. GC40777 β-D-Glucose

    NSC 287045

    D-Glucose, a naturally occurring monosaccharide found in plants, is the primary energy source for living organisms.

    β-D-Glucose  Chemical Structure
  12. GC66842 β-Methylcrotonyl coenzyme A lithium β-Methylcrotonyl coenzyme A lithium is an intermediate in leucine metabolism and can be used as a substrate to study the specificity and kinetics of β-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase (MCCase). β-Methylcrotonyl coenzyme A lithium  Chemical Structure
  13. GC40719 β-Muricholic Acid

    5β-Cholanic Acid-3α,6β,7β-triol, β-MCA

    β-Muricholic acid is a naturally occurring trihydroxy hydrophilic bile acid, as a biliary cholesterol-desaturating agent and facilitates the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. β-Muricholic Acid  Chemical Structure
  14. GC67484 β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced dipotassium β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced dipotassium is an orally active reduced coenzyme. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced dipotassium is a donor of ADP-ribose units in ADP-ribosylaton reactions and a precursor of cyclic ADP-ribose. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced dipotassium plays a role as a regenerative electron donor in cellular energy metabolism, including glycolysis, β-oxidation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced dipotassium  Chemical Structure
  15. GC70185 β-Sitostenone

    δ4-Sitosterol-3-one; β-Rosasterol oxide

    Beta-sitostenone is a sterol isolated from Cochlospermum vitifolium. It can inhibit the activity of tyrosinase and has anti-melanogenesis and anti-tumor activities.

    β-Sitostenone  Chemical Structure
  16. GC38010 γ-Aminobutyric acid γ-Aminobutyric acid  Chemical Structure
  17. GC63279 γ-Glu-Gly TFA γ-Glu-Gly TFA  Chemical Structure
  18. GC38011 γ-Secretase modulator 4 γ-Secretase modulator 4  Chemical Structure
  19. GC66048 δ-Secretase inhibitor 11 δ-Secretase inhibitor 11 (compound 11) is an orally active, potent, BBB-penetrated, non-toxic, selective and specific δ-secretase inhibitor, with an IC50 of 0.7 μM. δ-Secretase inhibitor 11 interacts with both the active site and allosteric site of δ-secretase. δ-Secretase inhibitor 11 attenuates tau and APP (amyloid precursor protein) cleavage. δ-Secretase inhibitor 11 ameliorates synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairments in tau P301S and 5XFAD transgenic mouse models. δ-Secretase inhibitor 11 can be used for Alzheimer's disease research. δ-Secretase inhibitor 11  Chemical Structure
  20. GC15975 α-Estradiol

    Alfatradiol, α-Estradiol, 17-epi Estradiol, NSC 20293, 17α-Oestradiol

    α-Estradiol is a weak estrogen and a 5α-reductase inhibitor which is used as a topical medication in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. α-Estradiol  Chemical Structure
  21. GC30187 γ-Glu-Phe (γ-Glutamylphenylalanine)

    γ-Glutamylphenylalanine

    γ-Glu-Phe (γ-Glutamylphenylalanine) (γ-Glutamylphenylalanine) is synthesized by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GBA) and Aspergillus oryzae (GAO). γ-Glu-Phe (γ-Glutamylphenylalanine)  Chemical Structure
  22. GC41552 ω-3 Arachidonic Acid

    ω3 AA

    ω-3 Arachidonic acid is a rare PUFA found in trace amounts in dietary sources. ω-3 Arachidonic Acid  Chemical Structure
  23. GC40259 (±)-β-Tocopherol

    DL-β-Tocopherol, rac-β-Tocopherol

    (±)-β-Tocopherol is a lipid-soluble form of vitamin E with antioxidant activity. (±)-β-Tocopherol  Chemical Structure
  24. GC40260 (±)-γ-Tocopherol

    7,8-Dimethyltocol, all-rac-γ-Tocopherol, DL-γ-Tocopherol

    (±)-γ-Tocopherol is a form of vitamin E with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (±)-γ-Tocopherol  Chemical Structure
  25. GC41661 (±)-4-hydroxy Propranolol β-D-Glucuronide (±)-4-hydroxy Propranolol β-D-glucuronide is a metabolite of (±)-4-hydroxy propranolol, which is a metabolite of propranolol. (±)-4-hydroxy Propranolol β-D-Glucuronide  Chemical Structure
  26. GC34961 (±)-BI-D (±)-BI-D is a potent ALLINI(An allosteric IN inhibitor) that binds integrase at the LEDGF/p75 binding site. (±)-BI-D  Chemical Structure
  27. GC46284 (±)-Cotinine-d3 An internal standard for the quantification of cotinine (±)-Cotinine-d3  Chemical Structure
  28. GC41670 (±)-Epinephrine (hydrochloride)

    (±)-Adrenaline, DL-Adrenaline, DL-Epinephrine

    (±)-Epinephrine is a natural neurotransmitter that is released from the adrenal medulla and activates adrenoceptors (Kis = 15, 735, and 3,970 nM for α1A-, β2-, and β1-adrenergic receptors, respectively). (±)-Epinephrine (hydrochloride)  Chemical Structure
  29. GC41671 (±)-Equol 4'-sulfate (sodium salt)

    R,S-Equol 4'-Sulfate

    (±)-Equol 4'-sulfate is a gut-mediated phase II metabolite of the isoflavonoid phytoestrogen (±)-equol.

    (±)-Equol 4'-sulfate (sodium salt)  Chemical Structure
  30. GC41315 (±)-Ketoprofen Glucuronide

    rac-Ketoprofen Acyl-β-D-glucuronide, (R,S)-Ketoprofen Glucuronide

    (±)-Ketoprofen glucuronide is a phase II metabolite of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ketoprofen.

    (±)-Ketoprofen Glucuronide  Chemical Structure
  31. GC38369 (±)-Leucine (±)-Leucine  Chemical Structure
  32. GC65599 (±)-Leucine-d10 (±)-Leucine-d10  Chemical Structure
  33. GC49875 (±)-N-desmethyl Venlafaxine (hydrochloride)

    Wy 45494

    A minor active metabolite of venlafaxine (±)-N-desmethyl Venlafaxine (hydrochloride)  Chemical Structure
  34. GC39271 (±)-Naringenin

    SDihydrogenistein, NSC 11855, NSC 34875, Salipurol

    A citrusderived flavonoid (±)-Naringenin  Chemical Structure
  35. GC13890 (±)-Palmitoylcarnitine chloride

    C16:0 Carnitine, CAR 16:0, DL-Carnitine hexadecanoyl ester, DL-Carnitine palmitoyl ester, Hexadecanoyl-DL-carnitine, DL-Hexadecanoylcarnitine, NSC 628323, DL-Palmitoylcarnitine

    intermediate in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (±)-Palmitoylcarnitine chloride  Chemical Structure
  36. GC40229 (±)-Warfarin-d5 (±)-Warfarin-d5 is intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of warfarin by GC- or LC-MS. (±)-Warfarin-d5  Chemical Structure
  37. GC41649 (±)13-HODE cholesteryl ester (±)13-HODE cholesteryl ester was originally extracted from atherosclerotic lesions and shown to be produced by Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of LDL. (±)13-HODE cholesteryl ester  Chemical Structure
  38. GC19444 (±)20-HDHA

    20hydroxy Docosahexaenoic Acid, (±)20HDoHE

    An autoxidation product of DHA and potential marker of oxidative stress (±)20-HDHA  Chemical Structure
  39. GC40828 (±)5-HETE lactone

    (±)5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid lactone

    (±)5-HETE lactone is a cyclic ester formed by acid-catalyzed nucleophilic addition of the C-5 hydroxyl to the C-1 carboxyl of (±)5-HETE. (±)5-HETE lactone  Chemical Structure
  40. GC40442 (±)8-HETE

    (±)8-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid

    (±)8-HETE is one of the six monohydroxy fatty acids produced by the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid. (±)8-HETE  Chemical Structure
  41. GC40801 (±)9(10)-DiHOME

    Leukotoxin diol

    Leukotoxin is the 9(10) epoxide of linoleic acid, generated by neutrophils during the oxidative burst. (±)9(10)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  42. GC41666 (±)9-HODE cholesteryl ester (±)9-HODE cholesteryl ester was originally extracted from atherosclerotic lesions and shown to be produced by Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of LDL. (±)9-HODE cholesteryl ester  Chemical Structure
  43. GC30586 (±) Anabasine (±) Anabasine is a biphasic muscle relaxant. (±) Anabasine  Chemical Structure
  44. GC61647 (+)-Longifolene (+)-Longifolene is a sesquiterpenoid and a metabolite in rabbits. (+)-Longifolene  Chemical Structure
  45. GC10675 (+,-)-Octopamine HCl

    β,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine, Epirenor, Norfen, NSC 108685, (±)-4-Octopamine, (±)-p-Octopamine

    Octopamine ((±)-p-Octopamine) hydrochloride, a biogenic monoamine structurally related to noradrenaline, acts as a neurohormone, a neuromodulator and a neurotransmitter in invertebrates. (+,-)-Octopamine HCl  Chemical Structure
  46. GC45245 (-)-Caryophyllene oxide

    BCP oxide, β-Caryophyllene epoxide, β-Caryophyllene oxide

    (-)-Caryophyllene oxide is a bicyclic sesquiterpene and a metabolite of β-caryophyllene that has been found in C. (-)-Caryophyllene oxide  Chemical Structure
  47. GC17470 (-)-Cotinine

    NIH 10498

    α3/α6β2 nAChR activator (-)-Cotinine  Chemical Structure
  48. GC17242 (-)-epigallocatechin

    (-)EGC, epi-Gallocatechin, NSC 674039

    green tea epicatechin (-)-epigallocatechin  Chemical Structure
  49. GC14049 (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)

    EGCG

    (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate sulfate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol in green tea that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)  Chemical Structure
  50. GC34951 (-)-Menthol

    L-Menthol, (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-Menthol, NSC 62788

    A monoterpene with diverse biological activities (-)-Menthol  Chemical Structure
  51. GC45252 (-)-Sitagliptin Carbamoyl Glucuronide

    (R)-Sitagliptin Carbamoyl Glucuronide

    (-)-Sitagliptin carbamoyl glucuronide is a minor phase II metabolite of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor (-)-sitagliptin. (-)-Sitagliptin Carbamoyl Glucuronide  Chemical Structure
  52. GC18622 (2'S)-Nicotine-1-oxide

    Nicotine-N-oxide

    (2'S)-Nicotine-1-oxide is a metabolite of nicotine . (2'S)-Nicotine-1-oxide  Chemical Structure
  53. GC38299 (2-Aminoethyl)phosphonic acid (2-Aminoethyl)phosphonic acid is an endogenous metabolite. (2-Aminoethyl)phosphonic acid  Chemical Structure
  54. GC68509 (25R)-12α-Hydroxyspirost-4-en-3-one

    (25R)-12α-Hydroxyspirost-4-en-3-one is a secondary metabolite produced by Nocardia globerula from Hecogenin.

    (25R)-12α-Hydroxyspirost-4-en-3-one  Chemical Structure
  55. GC38265 (2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid (2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid (L-(+)-Tartaric acid) is an endogenous metabolite. (2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid  Chemical Structure
  56. GC62731 (2R,3R)-Butane-2,3-diol (2R,3R)-Butane-2,3-diol is an endogenous metabolite. (2R,3R)-Butane-2,3-diol  Chemical Structure
  57. GC38296 (2S,3R,4S,5R)-2-Amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyhexanal hydrochloride (2S,3R,4S,5R)-2-Amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyhexanal hydrochloride is an endogenous metabolite. (2S,3R,4S,5R)-2-Amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyhexanal hydrochloride  Chemical Structure
  58. GC33797 (3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride is angiopathic substance produced as an intermediary metabolite by gut microbiota that feed on carnitine in dietary red meat. (3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride  Chemical Structure
  59. GC41694 (3S)-hydroxy Quinidine (3S)-hydroxy Quinidine is an active quinidine metabolite. (3S)-hydroxy Quinidine  Chemical Structure
  60. GC38144 (3S,4R,5S)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one A monosaccharide (3S,4R,5S)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one  Chemical Structure
  61. GC38283 (3S,4S,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one (3S,4S,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one (D-(-)-Tagatose) is a rare monosaccharide found in nature with prebiotic characteristics. (3S,4S,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one  Chemical Structure
  62. GC12395 (D)-(+)-Neopterin (D)-(+)-Neopterin (D-(+)-(D)-(+)-Neopterin), a catabolic product of guanosine triphosphate (GTM), serves as a marker of cellular immune system activation. (D)-(+)-Neopterin  Chemical Structure
  63. GC60399 (E)-10-Hydroxynortriptyline

    10(E)-hydroxy Nortriptyline

    (E)-10-Hydroxynortriptyline (E-10-OH-NT) is a metabolite of Nortriptyline. (E)-10-Hydroxynortriptyline  Chemical Structure
  64. GC65239 (E)-3,4-(Methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (E)-3,4-(Methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid is a cinnamic acid derivative obtained from the stem bark of Brombya platynema. (E)-3,4-(Methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid  Chemical Structure
  65. GC38684 (E)-m-Coumaric acid (E)-m-Coumaric acid (3-Hydroxycinnamic acid) is an aromatic acid that highly abundant in food. (E)-m-Coumaric acid  Chemical Structure
  66. GC62734 (E)-Oct-2-enoic acid (E)-Oct-2-enoic acid is an endogenous metabolite. (E)-Oct-2-enoic acid  Chemical Structure
  67. GC40286 (E,Z)-2-propyl-2-Pentenoic Acid

    2-propyl-2-Pentenoate, 2-propylpenten-2-oic Acid, 2-ene-VPA

    (E,Z)-2-propyl-2-Pentenoic acid is a bioactive metabolite of valproic acid that exhibits the same profile and potency of anticonvulsant activity in animal models as its parent compound without any observed teratogenicity and hepatotoxicity. (E,Z)-2-propyl-2-Pentenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  68. GC49189 (E/Z)-4-hydroxy Tamoxifen-d5

    Afimoxifene-d5, 4-OHT-d5

    An internal standard for the quantification of (E/Z)-4-hydroxy tamoxifen (E/Z)-4-hydroxy Tamoxifen-d5  Chemical Structure
  69. GC67476 (E/Z)-Sulindac sulfide (E/Z)-Sulindac sulfide is a potent γ-secretase modulator (GSM). (E/Z)-Sulindac sulfide selectively reduces Aβ42 production in favor of shorter Aβ species. (E/Z)-Sulindac sulfide can be used for researching Alzheimer's disease. (E/Z)-Sulindac sulfide  Chemical Structure
  70. GC60404 (Ethoxymethyl)benzene (Ethoxymethyl)benzene is an endogenous metabolite. (Ethoxymethyl)benzene  Chemical Structure
  71. GA11210 (H-Cys-OH)2

    (–)-Cystine, NSC 13203

    (H-Cys-OH)2  Chemical Structure
  72. GN10783 (R) Ginsenoside Rh2 (R) Ginsenoside Rh2  Chemical Structure
  73. GC41721 (R)-α-Lipoic Acid

    (R)-(+)-Lipoic Acid

    (R)-α-Lipoic acid is the naturally occurring enantiomer of lipoic acid, a cyclic disulfide antioxidant. (R)-α-Lipoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  74. GC34442 (R)-(+)-Citronellal (R)-(+)-Citronellal, isolated from citrus, lavender and eucalyptus oils, is a monoterpenoid and main component of citronellal oil with a distinct lemon scent. (R)-(+)-Citronellal  Chemical Structure
  75. GC38262 (R)-(-)-1,3-Butanediol (R)-(-)-1,3-Butanediol is used to regulate the metabolism of carbohydrate and lipid. (R)-(-)-1,3-Butanediol  Chemical Structure
  76. GC62737 (R)-(-)-O-Desmethyl Venlafaxine D6 (R)-(-)-O-Desmethyl Venlafaxine D6  Chemical Structure
  77. GC30210 (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid is a metabolite, and converted from acetoacetic acid catalyzed by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid  Chemical Structure
  78. GC61759 (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid sodium (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid sodium ((R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid) is a metabolite converted from acetoacetic acid catalyzed by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid sodium  Chemical Structure
  79. GC30661 (R)-3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid

    (R)-3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid is an intermediate in the pathways of l-valine and thymine and plays an important role in the diagnosis of the very rare inherited metabolic diseases 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria and methylmalonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency.

    (R)-3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid  Chemical Structure
  80. GC38282 (R)-5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid

    (R)-5-Oxoproline, (+)-Pyroglutamic Acid

    (R)-5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid is an endogenous metabolite. (R)-5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid  Chemical Structure
  81. GC19012 (R)-GNE-140

    ?A TRK kinase (TKI) inhibitor

    (R)-GNE-140  Chemical Structure
  82. GC52290 (R)-HTS-3 An inhibitor of LPCAT3 (R)-HTS-3  Chemical Structure
  83. GC61858 (R)-MLN-4760 (R)-MLN-4760, the R-enantiomer of MLN-4760, is an ACE2 inhibitor, with an IC50 of 8.4 μM. (R)-MLN-4760  Chemical Structure
  84. GC38364 (R)-Ornithine hydrochloride (R)-Ornithine hydrochloride  Chemical Structure
  85. GC38363 (R)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (R)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid is an endogenous metabolite. (R)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid  Chemical Structure
  86. GC38720 (R)-Trolox (R)-Trolox is a vitamin E analogue and a competitive tyrosinase inhibitor with a Ki value of 0.83 mM and a ID50 value of 1.88 mM. The (R)-Trolox has stronger tyrosinase affinity than the (S) enantiomer (Ki value of 0.61 mM). (R)-Trolox  Chemical Structure
  87. GC39832 (R,R)-(+)-Hydrobenzoin (R,R)-(+)-Hydrobenzoin is a organocatalysts. (R,R)-(+)-Hydrobenzoin  Chemical Structure
  88. GC41722 (R,S)-Carvedilol Glucuronide (R,S)-Carvedilol glucuronide is a racemic mixture of the carvedilol metabolites (R)-carvedilol glucuronide and (S)-carvedilol glucuronide. (R,S)-Carvedilol Glucuronide  Chemical Structure
  89. GC34417 (R,S)-Ivosidenib ((R,S)-AG-120) (R,S)-Ivosidenib ((R,S)-AG-120)  Chemical Structure
  90. GC60410 (Rac)-3′-Hydroxy simvastatin (Rac)-3′-Hydroxy simvastatin is a metabolite of Simvastatin. (Rac)-3′-Hydroxy simvastatin  Chemical Structure
  91. GC68414 (Rac)-Atropine-d3

    (Rac)-Tropine tropate-d3; (Rac)-Hyoscyamine-d3

    (Rac)-Atropine-d3  Chemical Structure
  92. GC67993 (Rac)-Cotinine-d4

    (±)-Cotinine-d4; (Rac)-NIH-10498-d4

    (Rac)-Cotinine-d4  Chemical Structure
  93. GC62744 (Rac)-OSMI-1 (Rac)-OSMI-1 is the racemate of OSMI-1. (Rac)-OSMI-1  Chemical Structure
  94. GC39833 (S)-(+)-1,2-Propanediol (S)-(+)-1,2-Propanediol is an endogenous metabolite. (S)-(+)-1,2-Propanediol  Chemical Structure
  95. GC62747 (S)-(-)-Citronellal (S)-(-)-Citronellal  Chemical Structure
  96. GC38371 (S)-(-)-Phenylethanol (S)-(-)-Phenylethanol is an endogenous metabolite. (S)-(-)-Phenylethanol  Chemical Structure
  97. GC62748 (S)-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)propanoic acid dihydrate (S)-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)propanoic acid dihydrate is an endogenous metabolite. (S)-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)propanoic acid dihydrate  Chemical Structure
  98. GC31630 (S)-2-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid (S)-2-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid is a product of phenylalanine catabolism. (S)-2-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid  Chemical Structure
  99. GC64746 (S)-2-Hydroxybutanoic acid (S)-2-Hydroxybutanoic acid is the S-enantiomer of?2-Hydroxybutanoic acid. (S)-2-Hydroxybutanoic acid  Chemical Structure
  100. GC31622 (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid ((S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid in naturally occurring form, contributes to the pleasantly sour taste of fruits and is used as a food additive. (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid  Chemical Structure
  101. GC30649 (S)-3,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid (S)-3,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid is a normal human urinary metabolite that is excreted in increased concentration in patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency. (S)-3,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid  Chemical Structure

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