Proteases is a general term for a class of enzymes that hydrolyze protein peptide chains. According to the way they degrade polypeptides, they are divided into two categories: endopeptidases and telopeptidases. The former can cut the large molecular weight polypeptide chain from the middle to form prions and peptones with smaller molecular weights; the latter can be divided into carboxypeptidase and aminopeptidase, which respectively remove the peptide from the free carboxyl terminus or free amino terminus of the polypeptide one by one. Chain hydrolysis produces amino acids.
A general term for a class of enzymes that hydrolyze peptide bonds in proteins. According to the way they hydrolyze polypeptides, they can be divided into endopeptidases and exopeptidases. Endopeptidase cleaves the interior of the protein molecule to form smaller molecular weight peptones and peptones. Exopeptidase hydrolyzes peptide bonds one by one from the end of the free amino group or carboxyl group of protein molecules, and frees amino acids, the former is aminopeptidase and the latter is carboxypeptidase. Proteases can be classified into serine proteases, sulfhydryl proteases, metalloproteases and aspartic proteases according to their active centers and optimum pH. According to the optimum pH value of its reaction, it is divided into acidic protease, neutral protease and alkaline protease. The proteases used in industrial production are mainly endopeptidases.
Proteases are widely found in animal offal, plant stems and leaves, fruits and microorganisms. Microbial proteases are mainly produced by molds and bacteria, followed by yeast and actinomycetes.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of proteins. There are many kinds, the important ones are pepsin, trypsin, cathepsin, papain and subtilisin. Proteases have strict selectivity for the reaction substrates they act on. A protease can only act on certain peptide bonds in protein molecules, such as the peptide bonds formed by the hydrolysis of basic amino acids catalyzed by trypsin. Proteases are widely distributed, mainly in the digestive tract of humans and animals, and are abundant in plants and microorganisms. Due to limited animal and plant resources, the industrial production of protease preparations is mainly prepared by fermentation of microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terrestris.
Targets for Proteases
- Gamma Secretase(55)
- HCV Protease(37)
- HIV Integrase(29)
- HIV Protease(34)
- NS3/4a protease(6)
- Serine Protease(12)
- Cysteine Protease(0)
- Other Proteases(15)
- Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase(10)
- Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH)(21)
- Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase(10)
- Dipeptidyl Peptidase(43)
- Drug Metabolite(409)
- E1/E2/E3 Enzyme(80)
- Endogenous Metabolite(1428)
- Farnesyl Transferase(21)
- Glutathione Peroxidase(11)
- Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH)(23)
- Lactate Dehydrogenase(18)
- Mitochondrial Metabolism(184)
- NEDD8-activating Enzyme(8)
- Ser/Thr Protease(27)
- Tryptophan Hydroxylase(11)
- Xanthine Oxidase(16)
Products for Proteases
- Cat.No. Product Name Information
- GC11282 β-Estradiol Sex hormone
α-Carotene is a precursor of vitamin A that has been found in various fruits and vegetables.
α-Ecdysone is a prohormone of 20-hydroxy ecdysone, an insect-molting, ecdysteroid hormone.
- GC45208 α-hydroxy Metoprolol α-hydroxy Metoprolol is an active metabolite of the β1-adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol.
α-Muricholic acid is a murine-specific primary bile acid.
- GC40480 α-Phenyl-α-(2-pyridyl)acetonitrile α-Phenyl-α-(2-pyridyl)thioacetamide, also known as antigastrin and SC-15396, is an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion.
- GC38287 α-Pyridone
- GC63275 β-Cryptoxanthin
D-Glucose, a naturally occurring monosaccharide found in plants, is the primary energy source for living organisms.
- GC40719 β-Muricholic Acid A murine-specific primary bile acid
- GC38010 γ-Aminobutyric acid
- GC63279 γ-Glu-Gly TFA
- GC40790 γ-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is an ω-6 fatty acid which can be elongated to arachidonic acid for endogenous eicosanoid synthesis.
- GC15975 α-Estradiol Endogenous estrogen receptor ligand
- GC30187 γ-Glu-Phe (γ-Glutamylphenylalanine)
- GC41552 ω-3 Arachidonic Acid ω-3 Arachidonic acid is a rare PUFA found in trace amounts in dietary sources.
- GC40259 (±)-β-Tocopherol (±)-β-Tocopherol is a lipid-soluble form of vitamin E with antioxidant activity.
- GC40260 (±)-γ-Tocopherol (±)-γ-Tocopherol is a form of vitamin E with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
- GC41661 (±)-4-hydroxy Propranolol β-D-Glucuronide (±)-4-hydroxy Propranolol β-D-glucuronide is a metabolite of (±)-4-hydroxy propranolol, which is a metabolite of propranolol.
- GC34961 (±)-BI-D
- GC41670 (±)-Epinephrine (hydrochloride) (±)-Epinephrine is a natural neurotransmitter that is released from the adrenal medulla and activates adrenoceptors (Kis = 15, 735, and 3,970 nM for α1A-, β2-, and β1-adrenergic receptors, respectively).
(±)-Equol 4'-sulfate (sodium salt)
(±)-Equol 4'-sulfate is a gut-mediated phase II metabolite of the isoflavonoid phytoestrogen (±)-equol.
- GC41315 (±)-Ketoprofen Glucuronide (±)-Ketoprofen glucuronide is a phase II metabolite of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ketoprofen.
- GC38369 (±)-Leucine
- GC65599 (±)-Leucine-d10
- GC39271 (±)-Naringenin
- GC13890 (±)-Palmitoylcarnitine chloride intermediate in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation
- GC40229 (±)-Warfarin-d5 (±)-Warfarin-d5 is intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of warfarin by GC- or LC-MS.
- GC41649 (±)13-HODE cholesteryl ester (±)13-HODE cholesteryl ester was originally extracted from atherosclerotic lesions and shown to be produced by Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of LDL.
- GC19444 (±)20-HDHA
- GC40828 (±)5-HETE lactone (±)5-HETE lactone is a cyclic ester formed by acid-catalyzed nucleophilic addition of the C-5 hydroxyl to the C-1 carboxyl of (±)5-HETE.
- GC40442 (±)8-HETE (±)8-HETE is one of the six monohydroxy fatty acids produced by the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid.
- GC40801 (±)9(10)-DiHOME Leukotoxin is the 9(10) epoxide of linoleic acid, generated by neutrophils during the oxidative burst.
- GC41666 (±)9-HODE cholesteryl ester (±)9-HODE cholesteryl ester was originally extracted from atherosclerotic lesions and shown to be produced by Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of LDL.
- GC30586 (±) Anabasine
- GC61647 (+)-Longifolene
- GC10675 (+,-)-Octopamine HCl adrenoceptor agonist
- GC45245 (-)-Caryophyllene oxide (-)-Caryophyllene oxide is a bicyclic sesquiterpene and a metabolite of β-caryophyllene that has been found in C.
- GC17470 (-)-Cotinine α3/α6β2 nAChR activator
- GC17242 (-)-epigallocatechin green tea epicatechin
- GC14049 (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) Antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antitumor agent
- GC31620 (-)-Fucose (6-Desoxygalactose)
- GC34951 (-)-Menthol
- GC45252 (-)-Sitagliptin Carbamoyl Glucuronide (-)-Sitagliptin carbamoyl glucuronide is a minor phase II metabolite of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor (-)-sitagliptin.
- GC18622 (2'S)-Nicotine-1-oxide (2'S)-Nicotine-1-oxide is a metabolite of nicotine .
- GC38299 (2-Aminoethyl)phosphonic acid
- GC38265 (2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid
- GC62731 (2R,3R)-Butane-2,3-diol
- GC38296 (2S,3R,4S,5R)-2-Amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyhexanal hydrochloride
- GC33797 (3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (γ-Butyrobetaine hydrochloride)
- GC41694 (3S)-hydroxy Quinidine (3S)-hydroxy Quinidine is an active quinidine metabolite.
- GC38144 (3S,4R,5S)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one
- GC38283 (3S,4S,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one
- GC12395 (D)-(+)-Neopterin Precursor of biopterin synthesis
- GC60399 (E)-10-Hydroxynortriptyline
- GC65239 (E)-3,4-(Methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid
- GC38684 (E)-m-Coumaric acid
- GC62734 (E)-Oct-2-enoic acid
- GC40286 (E,Z)-2-propyl-2-Pentenoic Acid (E,Z)-2-propyl-2-Pentenoic acid is a bioactive metabolite of valproic acid that exhibits the same profile and potency of anticonvulsant activity in animal models as its parent compound without any observed teratogenicity and hepatotoxicity.
- GC60404 (Ethoxymethyl)benzene
- GA11210 (H-Cys-OH)2 (H-Cys-OH)2
- GN10783 (R) Ginsenoside Rh2 Extracted from Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. dried roots;Store the product in sealed, cool and dry condition
- GC41721 (R)-α-Lipoic Acid (R)-α-Lipoic acid is the naturally occurring enantiomer of lipoic acid, a cyclic disulfide antioxidant.
- GC34442 (R)-(+)-Citronellal
- GC38262 (R)-(-)-1,3-Butanediol
- GC62737 (R)-(-)-O-Desmethyl Venlafaxine D6
- GC30210 (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid
- GC61759 (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid sodium
- GC30661 (R)-3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid
- GC38282 (R)-5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
A TRK kinase (TKI) inhibitor
- GC61858 (R)-MLN-4760
- GC38364 (R)-Ornithine hydrochloride
- GC38363 (R)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
- GC38720 (R)-Trolox
- GC39832 (R,R)-(+)-Hydrobenzoin
- GC41722 (R,S)-Carvedilol Glucuronide (R,S)-Carvedilol glucuronide is a racemic mixture of the carvedilol metabolites (R)-carvedilol glucuronide and (S)-carvedilol glucuronide.
- GC34417 (R,S)-Ivosidenib ((R,S)-AG-120)
- GC60410 (Rac)-3′-Hydroxy simvastatin
- GC62744 (Rac)-OSMI-1
- GC39833 (S)-(+)-1,2-Propanediol
- GC62747 (S)-(-)-Citronellal
- GC38371 (S)-(-)-Phenylethanol
- GC62748 (S)-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)propanoic acid dihydrate
- GC31630 (S)-2-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid
- GC64746 (S)-2-Hydroxybutanoic acid
- GC31622 (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
- GC30649 (S)-3,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid
- GC64473 (S)-3,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid lithium hydrate
- GC62749 (S)-3-Hydroxy-2-(Phosphonooxy)Propanoic Acid
- GC30304 (S)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid ((S)-β-Hydroxybutanoic acid)
- GC30623 (S)-3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid
- GC30148 (S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid
- GC32993 (S)-GNE-140
- GC62751 (S)-Higenamine hydrobromide
- GC40145 (S)-Laudanosine (S)-Laudanosine is the (S) enantiomer of laudanosine, a metabolite of the neuromuscular blocking agents atracurium and cisatracurium.
- GC30735 (S)-Leucic acid
- GC35003 (S)-Nornicotine
- GC60419 (S)-O-Desmethyl Venlafaxine N-Oxide
- GC64535 (S,S)-TAPI-1