Home >> Signaling Pathways >> Proteases

Proteases

Proteases is a general term for a class of enzymes that hydrolyze protein peptide chains. According to the way they degrade polypeptides, they are divided into two categories: endopeptidases and telopeptidases. The former can cut the large molecular weight polypeptide chain from the middle to form prions and peptones with smaller molecular weights; the latter can be divided into carboxypeptidase and aminopeptidase, which respectively remove the peptide from the free carboxyl terminus or free amino terminus of the polypeptide one by one. Chain hydrolysis produces amino acids.

A general term for a class of enzymes that hydrolyze peptide bonds in proteins. According to the way they hydrolyze polypeptides, they can be divided into endopeptidases and exopeptidases. Endopeptidase cleaves the interior of the protein molecule to form smaller molecular weight peptones and peptones. Exopeptidase hydrolyzes peptide bonds one by one from the end of the free amino group or carboxyl group of protein molecules, and frees amino acids, the former is aminopeptidase and the latter is carboxypeptidase. Proteases can be classified into serine proteases, sulfhydryl proteases, metalloproteases and aspartic proteases according to their active centers and optimum pH. According to the optimum pH value of its reaction, it is divided into acidic protease, neutral protease and alkaline protease. The proteases used in industrial production are mainly endopeptidases.

Proteases are widely found in animal offal, plant stems and leaves, fruits and microorganisms. Microbial proteases are mainly produced by molds and bacteria, followed by yeast and actinomycetes.

Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of proteins. There are many kinds, the important ones are pepsin, trypsin, cathepsin, papain and subtilisin. Proteases have strict selectivity for the reaction substrates they act on. A protease can only act on certain peptide bonds in protein molecules, such as the peptide bonds formed by the hydrolysis of basic amino acids catalyzed by trypsin. Proteases are widely distributed, mainly in the digestive tract of humans and animals, and are abundant in plants and microorganisms. Due to limited animal and plant resources, the industrial production of protease preparations is mainly prepared by fermentation of microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terrestris.

Targets for  Proteases

Products for  Proteases

  1. Cat.No. Product Name Information
  2. GC11282 β-Estradiol Sex hormone  β-Estradiol  Chemical Structure
  3. GC41183 α-Carotene

    α-Carotene is a precursor of vitamin A that has been found in various fruits and vegetables.

    α-Carotene  Chemical Structure
  4. GC45204 α-Ecdysone

    α-Ecdysone is a prohormone of 20-hydroxy ecdysone, an insect-molting, ecdysteroid hormone.

    α-Ecdysone  Chemical Structure
  5. GC45208 α-hydroxy Metoprolol α-hydroxy Metoprolol is an active metabolite of the β1-adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol. α-hydroxy Metoprolol  Chemical Structure
  6. GC40718 α-Muricholic Acid

    α-Muricholic acid is a murine-specific primary bile acid.

    α-Muricholic Acid  Chemical Structure
  7. GC40480 α-Phenyl-α-(2-pyridyl)acetonitrile α-Phenyl-α-(2-pyridyl)thioacetamide, also known as antigastrin and SC-15396, is an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. α-Phenyl-α-(2-pyridyl)acetonitrile  Chemical Structure
  8. GC38287 α-Pyridone α-Pyridone  Chemical Structure
  9. GC63275 β-Cryptoxanthin β-Cryptoxanthin  Chemical Structure
  10. GC40777 β-D-Glucose

    D-Glucose, a naturally occurring monosaccharide found in plants, is the primary energy source for living organisms.

    β-D-Glucose  Chemical Structure
  11. GC40719 β-Muricholic Acid A murine-specific primary bile acid β-Muricholic Acid  Chemical Structure
  12. GC38010 γ-Aminobutyric acid γ-Aminobutyric acid  Chemical Structure
  13. GC63279 γ-Glu-Gly TFA γ-Glu-Gly TFA  Chemical Structure
  14. GC40790 γ-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is an ω-6 fatty acid which can be elongated to arachidonic acid for endogenous eicosanoid synthesis. γ-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester  Chemical Structure
  15. GC15975 α-Estradiol Endogenous estrogen receptor ligand α-Estradiol  Chemical Structure
  16. GC30187 γ-Glu-Phe (γ-Glutamylphenylalanine) γ-Glu-Phe (γ-Glutamylphenylalanine)  Chemical Structure
  17. GC41552 ω-3 Arachidonic Acid ω-3 Arachidonic acid is a rare PUFA found in trace amounts in dietary sources. ω-3 Arachidonic Acid  Chemical Structure
  18. GC40259 (±)-β-Tocopherol (±)-β-Tocopherol is a lipid-soluble form of vitamin E with antioxidant activity. (±)-β-Tocopherol  Chemical Structure
  19. GC40260 (±)-γ-Tocopherol (±)-γ-Tocopherol is a form of vitamin E with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (±)-γ-Tocopherol  Chemical Structure
  20. GC41661 (±)-4-hydroxy Propranolol β-D-Glucuronide (±)-4-hydroxy Propranolol β-D-glucuronide is a metabolite of (±)-4-hydroxy propranolol, which is a metabolite of propranolol. (±)-4-hydroxy Propranolol β-D-Glucuronide  Chemical Structure
  21. GC34961 (±)-BI-D (±)-BI-D  Chemical Structure
  22. GC41670 (±)-Epinephrine (hydrochloride) (±)-Epinephrine is a natural neurotransmitter that is released from the adrenal medulla and activates adrenoceptors (Kis = 15, 735, and 3,970 nM for α1A-, β2-, and β1-adrenergic receptors, respectively). (±)-Epinephrine (hydrochloride)  Chemical Structure
  23. GC41671 (±)-Equol 4'-sulfate (sodium salt)

    (±)-Equol 4'-sulfate is a gut-mediated phase II metabolite of the isoflavonoid phytoestrogen (±)-equol.

    (±)-Equol 4'-sulfate (sodium salt)  Chemical Structure
  24. GC41315 (±)-Ketoprofen Glucuronide (±)-Ketoprofen glucuronide is a phase II metabolite of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ketoprofen. (±)-Ketoprofen Glucuronide  Chemical Structure
  25. GC38369 (±)-Leucine (±)-Leucine  Chemical Structure
  26. GC39271 (±)-Naringenin (±)-Naringenin  Chemical Structure
  27. GC13890 (±)-Palmitoylcarnitine chloride intermediate in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (±)-Palmitoylcarnitine chloride  Chemical Structure
  28. GC40229 (±)-Warfarin-d5 (±)-Warfarin-d5 is intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of warfarin by GC- or LC-MS. (±)-Warfarin-d5  Chemical Structure
  29. GC41649 (±)13-HODE cholesteryl ester (±)13-HODE cholesteryl ester was originally extracted from atherosclerotic lesions and shown to be produced by Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of LDL. (±)13-HODE cholesteryl ester  Chemical Structure
  30. GC19444 (±)20-HDHA (±)20-HDHA  Chemical Structure
  31. GC40828 (±)5-HETE lactone (±)5-HETE lactone is a cyclic ester formed by acid-catalyzed nucleophilic addition of the C-5 hydroxyl to the C-1 carboxyl of (±)5-HETE. (±)5-HETE lactone  Chemical Structure
  32. GC40442 (±)8-HETE (±)8-HETE is one of the six monohydroxy fatty acids produced by the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid. (±)8-HETE  Chemical Structure
  33. GC40801 (±)9(10)-DiHOME Leukotoxin is the 9(10) epoxide of linoleic acid, generated by neutrophils during the oxidative burst. (±)9(10)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  34. GC41666 (±)9-HODE cholesteryl ester (±)9-HODE cholesteryl ester was originally extracted from atherosclerotic lesions and shown to be produced by Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of LDL. (±)9-HODE cholesteryl ester  Chemical Structure
  35. GC30586 (±) Anabasine (±) Anabasine  Chemical Structure
  36. GC61647 (+)-Longifolene (+)-Longifolene  Chemical Structure
  37. GC10675 (+,-)-Octopamine HCl adrenoceptor agonist (+,-)-Octopamine HCl  Chemical Structure
  38. GC45245 (-)-Caryophyllene oxide (-)-Caryophyllene oxide is a bicyclic sesquiterpene and a metabolite of β-caryophyllene that has been found in C. (-)-Caryophyllene oxide  Chemical Structure
  39. GC17470 (-)-Cotinine α3/α6β2 nAChR activator (-)-Cotinine  Chemical Structure
  40. GC17242 (-)-epigallocatechin green tea epicatechin (-)-epigallocatechin  Chemical Structure
  41. GC14049 (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) Antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antitumor agent (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)  Chemical Structure
  42. GC31620 (-)-Fucose (6-Desoxygalactose) (-)-Fucose (6-Desoxygalactose)  Chemical Structure
  43. GC34951 (-)-Menthol (-)-Menthol  Chemical Structure
  44. GC45252 (-)-Sitagliptin Carbamoyl Glucuronide (-)-Sitagliptin carbamoyl glucuronide is a minor phase II metabolite of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor (-)-sitagliptin. (-)-Sitagliptin Carbamoyl Glucuronide  Chemical Structure
  45. GC18622 (2'S)-Nicotine-1-oxide (2'S)-Nicotine-1-oxide is a metabolite of nicotine . (2'S)-Nicotine-1-oxide  Chemical Structure
  46. GC38299 (2-Aminoethyl)phosphonic acid (2-Aminoethyl)phosphonic acid  Chemical Structure
  47. GC38265 (2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid (2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid  Chemical Structure
  48. GC62731 (2R,3R)-Butane-2,3-diol (2R,3R)-Butane-2,3-diol  Chemical Structure
  49. GC38296 (2S,3R,4S,5R)-2-Amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyhexanal hydrochloride (2S,3R,4S,5R)-2-Amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyhexanal hydrochloride  Chemical Structure
  50. GC33797 (3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (γ-Butyrobetaine hydrochloride) (3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (γ-Butyrobetaine hydrochloride)  Chemical Structure
  51. GC41694 (3S)-hydroxy Quinidine (3S)-hydroxy Quinidine is an active quinidine metabolite. (3S)-hydroxy Quinidine  Chemical Structure
  52. GC38144 (3S,4R,5S)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one (3S,4R,5S)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one  Chemical Structure
  53. GC38283 (3S,4S,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one (3S,4S,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexan-2-one  Chemical Structure
  54. GC12395 (D)-(+)-Neopterin Precursor of biopterin synthesis (D)-(+)-Neopterin  Chemical Structure
  55. GC60399 (E)-10-Hydroxynortriptyline (E)-10-Hydroxynortriptyline  Chemical Structure
  56. GC38684 (E)-m-Coumaric acid (E)-m-Coumaric acid  Chemical Structure
  57. GC62734 (E)-Oct-2-enoic acid (E)-Oct-2-enoic acid  Chemical Structure
  58. GC40286 (E,Z)-2-propyl-2-Pentenoic Acid (E,Z)-2-propyl-2-Pentenoic acid is a bioactive metabolite of valproic acid that exhibits the same profile and potency of anticonvulsant activity in animal models as its parent compound without any observed teratogenicity and hepatotoxicity. (E,Z)-2-propyl-2-Pentenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  59. GC60404 (Ethoxymethyl)benzene (Ethoxymethyl)benzene  Chemical Structure
  60. GA11210 (H-Cys-OH)2 (H-Cys-OH)2 (H-Cys-OH)2  Chemical Structure
  61. GN10783 (R) Ginsenoside Rh2 Extracted from Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. dried roots;Store the product in sealed, cool and dry condition (R) Ginsenoside Rh2  Chemical Structure
  62. GC41721 (R)-α-Lipoic Acid (R)-α-Lipoic acid is the naturally occurring enantiomer of lipoic acid, a cyclic disulfide antioxidant. (R)-α-Lipoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  63. GC34442 (R)-(+)-Citronellal (R)-(+)-Citronellal  Chemical Structure
  64. GC38262 (R)-(-)-1,3-Butanediol (R)-(-)-1,3-Butanediol  Chemical Structure
  65. GC62737 (R)-(-)-O-Desmethyl Venlafaxine D6 (R)-(-)-O-Desmethyl Venlafaxine D6  Chemical Structure
  66. GC30210 (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid  Chemical Structure
  67. GC61759 (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid sodium (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid sodium  Chemical Structure
  68. GC30661 (R)-3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (R)-3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid  Chemical Structure
  69. GC38282 (R)-5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (R)-5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid  Chemical Structure
  70. GC19012 (R)-GNE-140

     A TRK kinase (TKI) inhibitor

    (R)-GNE-140  Chemical Structure
  71. GC61858 (R)-MLN-4760 (R)-MLN-4760  Chemical Structure
  72. GC38364 (R)-Ornithine hydrochloride (R)-Ornithine hydrochloride  Chemical Structure
  73. GC38363 (R)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (R)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid  Chemical Structure
  74. GC38720 (R)-Trolox (R)-Trolox  Chemical Structure
  75. GC39832 (R,R)-(+)-Hydrobenzoin (R,R)-(+)-Hydrobenzoin  Chemical Structure
  76. GC41722 (R,S)-Carvedilol Glucuronide (R,S)-Carvedilol glucuronide is a racemic mixture of the carvedilol metabolites (R)-carvedilol glucuronide and (S)-carvedilol glucuronide. (R,S)-Carvedilol Glucuronide  Chemical Structure
  77. GC34417 (R,S)-Ivosidenib ((R,S)-AG-120) (R,S)-Ivosidenib ((R,S)-AG-120)  Chemical Structure
  78. GC60410 (Rac)-3′-Hydroxy simvastatin (Rac)-3′-Hydroxy simvastatin  Chemical Structure
  79. GC62744 (Rac)-OSMI-1 (Rac)-OSMI-1  Chemical Structure
  80. GC39833 (S)-(+)-1,2-Propanediol (S)-(+)-1,2-Propanediol  Chemical Structure
  81. GC62747 (S)-(-)-Citronellal (S)-(-)-Citronellal  Chemical Structure
  82. GC38371 (S)-(-)-Phenylethanol (S)-(-)-Phenylethanol  Chemical Structure
  83. GC62748 (S)-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)propanoic acid dihydrate (S)-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)propanoic acid dihydrate  Chemical Structure
  84. GC31630 (S)-2-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid (S)-2-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid  Chemical Structure
  85. GC31622 (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid  Chemical Structure
  86. GC30649 (S)-3,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid (S)-3,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid  Chemical Structure
  87. GC62749 (S)-3-Hydroxy-2-(Phosphonooxy)Propanoic Acid (S)-3-Hydroxy-2-(Phosphonooxy)Propanoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  88. GC30304 (S)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid ((S)-β-Hydroxybutanoic acid) (S)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid ((S)-β-Hydroxybutanoic acid)  Chemical Structure
  89. GC30623 (S)-3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (S)-3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid  Chemical Structure
  90. GC30148 (S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid (S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid  Chemical Structure
  91. GC32993 (S)-GNE-140 (S)-GNE-140  Chemical Structure
  92. GC62751 (S)-Higenamine hydrobromide (S)-Higenamine hydrobromide  Chemical Structure
  93. GC40145 (S)-Laudanosine (S)-Laudanosine is the (S) enantiomer of laudanosine, a metabolite of the neuromuscular blocking agents atracurium and cisatracurium. (S)-Laudanosine  Chemical Structure
  94. GC30735 (S)-Leucic acid (S)-Leucic acid  Chemical Structure
  95. GC35003 (S)-Nornicotine (S)-Nornicotine  Chemical Structure
  96. GC60419 (S)-O-Desmethyl Venlafaxine N-Oxide (S)-O-Desmethyl Venlafaxine N-Oxide  Chemical Structure
  97. GC60427 (Z)-10-Hydroxynortriptyline (Z)-10-Hydroxynortriptyline  Chemical Structure
  98. GC31253 (Z)-Hexadec-9-enoic acid (Z)-Hexadec-9-enoic acid  Chemical Structure
  99. GC11847 (Z-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala)2Rh110 fluorogenic elastase substrate (Z-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala)2Rh110  Chemical Structure
  100. GC18596 (±)-2-propyl-4-Pentenoic Acid

    (±)-2-propyl-4-Pentenoic acid (4-ene VPA) is a major metabolite of valproic acid .

    (±)-2-propyl-4-Pentenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  101. GC16375 (±)-Jasmonic Acid methyl ester Suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis (±)-Jasmonic Acid methyl ester  Chemical Structure

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