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Tunicamycin Catalog No.GC16738

antibiotic,inhibits GlcNAc phosphotransferase (GPT)

Size Price Stock Qty
10mM (in 1mL DMSO)
$150.00
In stock
5mg
$86.40
In stock
10mg
$156.00
In stock

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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.

Quality Control

Quality Control & SDS

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Protocol

Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

RAW264.7 cells

Preparation method

The solubility of this compound in DMSO is >25 mg/mL. General tips for obtaining a higher concentration: Please warm the tube at 37℃ for 10 minutes and/or shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while. Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.

Reacting condition

48 h, 0.5 μg/mL

Applications

In RAW264.7 cells, tunicamycin significantly reduced LPS-induced nitrite release/production and attenuated the expression of mRNAs and hence proteins of COX-2 and iNOS. Tunicamycin at a concentration of 0.5 μg/mL did not have any effect on cell survival/proliferation, but at 48 h tunicamycin provided protection against activation-induced macrophage cell death. In a concentration-dependent manner, tunicamycin reduced COX-2 and iNOS protein expression in response to LPS and induced a concurrent increase in 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), an ER (endoplasmic reticulum) chaperone.

Animal models

C57BL/6J Nrf2 (+/+; wildtype) and C57BL/6J/Nrf2(-/-; knockout) mice

Dosage form

Oral gavage and only once for 3 h with 2 mg/kg tunicamycin (dissolved in 50% PEG 400 aqueous solution).

Application

In the small intestine of wild-type mice, expression levels of 1291 probes were elevated or of 1370 probes were suppressed >2 fold by tunicamycin. In the small intestine of Nrf2(-/-) mice, tunicamycin inhibited 2024 probes and induced 3471 probes by >2 fold. Compared with results of small intestine samples, in wild-type mice liver, less well-defined genes were either suppressed (943) or elevated (750) >2 fold by tunicamycin; whereas in Nrf2(-/-) mice liver, 3170 genes were inhibited or 39 well-defined genes were induced.

Other notes

Please test the solubility of all compounds indoor, and the actual solubility may slightly differ with the theoretical value. This is caused by an experimental system error and it is normal.

References:

[1] Song-YiKim, Ji-SunHwang and Inn-OcHan. Tunicamycin inhibits Toll-like receptor-activated inflammation in RAW264.7 cells by suppression of NF-κB and c-Jun activity via a mechanism that is independent of ER-stress and N-glycosylation. European Journal of Pharmacology, 2013, 721: 294-300.

[2] Sujit Nair, Changjiang Xu, Guoxiang Shen, et al. Toxicogenomics of Endoplasmic Reticulum stress inducer Tunicamycin in the Small Intestine and Liver of Nrf2 Knockout and C57BL/6J Mice. Toxicol Lett., 2007, 168(1):21-39.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 11089-65-9 SDF
Synonyms N/A
Chemical Name N/A
Canonical SMILES N/A
Formula C39H64N4O16 (tunicamycin C, n=10) M.Wt 844.95
Solubility 20mg/mL in DMSO or DMF Storage Store at -20°C
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request
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Background

Tunicamycin (TCM or TM) [1] [2] is an antibiotic. It can block the reaction between UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and dolichol phosphate in the first step of glycoprotein synthesis and thus inhibit the synthesis of all N-linked glycoproteins, finally cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress [3]. In Bacillus subtilis cells, the IC50 for TCM to inhibit the formation of dolichyl pyrophosphoryl N-acetylglucosamine (Dol-p-p-GlcNAc) is 0.03 μg/ml [2].

The ER stress response is a potent, evolutionarily conserved response to cellular metabolic stress and misfolded proteins. ER stress is induced by disruption of ER functions, such as transport to the Golgi complex or protein glycosylation, or by disturbances in the ER lumen environment, such as redox status or altered calcium homeostasis [3].

In RAW264.7 cells, tunicamycin significantly reduced LPS-induced nitrite release/production and attenuated the expression of mRNAs and hence proteins of COX-2 and iNOS. In addition, tunicamycin at a concentration of 0.5 μg/ml did not have any effect on cell survival/proliferation, but at 48h tunicamycin provided protection against activation-induced macrophage cell death. In a concentration-dependent manner, tunicamycin reduced COX-2 and iNOS protein expressions in response to LPS and induced a concurrent increase in 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), an ER chaperone [3].

In the small intestine of wild-type mice, tunicamycin elevated expression levels of suppressed 1370 probes and 1291 probes by >2 fold. In the small intestine of Nrf 2 (-/-) mice, tunicamycin inhibited 2024 probes and induced 3471 probes by >2 fold. Compared with results of small intestine samples, in wild-type mice liver, less well-defined genes were either suppressed (943) or elevated (750) >2 fold by tunicamycin; whereas in Nrf2 (-/-) mice liver, 3170 genes were inhibited or 39 well-defined genes were induced [1].

Reference:
[1].  Sujit Nair, Changjiang Xu, Guoxiang Shen, et al. Toxicogenomics of Endoplasmic Reticulum stress inducer Tunicamycin in the Small Intestine and Liver of Nrf2 Knockout and C57BL/6J Mice. Toxicol Lett., 2007, 168(1):21-39.
[2].  Masatoshi Inukai, Fujio Isono and Akira Takatsuki. Selective Inhibition of the Bacterial Translocase Reaction in Peptidoglycan Synthesis by Mureidomycins. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1993, 37(5): 980-983.
[3].  Song-YiKim, Ji-SunHwang and Inn-OcHan. Tunicamycin inhibits Toll-like receptor-activated inflammation in RAW264.7 cells by suppression of NF-κB and c-Junactivity via a mechanism that is independent of ER-stress and N-glycosylation. European Journal of Pharmacology, 2013, 721: 294-300.