Home>>Signaling Pathways>> Immunology/Inflammation>> SIKs>>HG-9-91-01


Catalog No.: GC11719

HG-9-91-01 is a salt-inducible kinases (SIK) inhibitor, inhibited SIK1, SIK2, SIK3 with IC50 values of 0.92nM, 6.5nM and 19.4nM, respectively.

HG-9-91-01 Chemical Structure

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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.

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Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

Bone marrow-derived macrophages

Preparation Method

Powder was dissolved in DMSO as 10 mM stock solutions and stored at -20¡栵ntil use. BMM cells were plated at concentration of 160 x 103 cells/well in 24 wells osteo assay plates coated with bone biomimetic synthetic surface and cultured with rmM-CSF (30ng/ml) and rmRANKL (50ng/ml) for 3 days in absence or presence of different concentrations of HG-9-91-01.

Reaction Conditions

0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5µM for 72 days


No significant toxicity was observed at the concentrations tested. Pre-treatment with 0.5 µM HG-9-91-01 significantly reduced the formation of resorption lacunae compared to RANKL alone.

Animal experiment [2]:

Animal models

TNBS-induced colitis in female BALB/c mice, C57BL/6J mice

Preparation Method

The TNBS-challenged mice were treated with different doses of HG-9-91-01 (3, 10, 30 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally (i.p.), dissolved in 100 µL olive oil).

Dosage form

Intraperitoneal injection, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg/day for 8 days.


TNBS-treated mice given HG-9-91-01 at 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg rapidly recovered their lost body weight. The macroscopic inflammatory signs (gross bleeding, ulceration) and the shortening of colon length typically caused by TNBS were also improved by treatment with 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg HG-9-91-01


[1]: Lombardi M S, GilliÉron C, Berkelaar M, et al. Salt-inducible kinases (SIK) inhibition reduces RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis[J]. PloS one, 2017, 12(10): e0185426.
[2]: Fu Y, Ma G, Zhang Y, et al. HG-9-91-01 Attenuates murine experimental colitis by promoting interleukin-10 production in colonic macrophages through the SIK/CRTC3 pathway[J]. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 2021, 27(11): 1821-1831.


HG-9-91-01 is a salt-inducible kinases (SIK) inhibitor, inhibited SIK1, SIK2, SIK3 with IC50 values of 0.92nM, 6.5nM and 19.4nM, respectively [1].

HG-9-91-01 potently inhibited the SIKs and did not inhibit any other member of the AMPK-related kinase subfamily. HG-9-91-01 increased LPS-stimulated IL-10 production and suppressed proinflammatory cytokine secretion [2]. 0.5 µM HG-9-91-01 pretreated RAW264.7 for 30 min before RANKL stimulation resulted in reduction of multinucleated cell formation and of TRAP staining, and significantly reduced the mRNA of osteoclast differentiation markers in a concentration dependent manner. Pre-treatment with 0.5 µM HG-9-91-01 significantly reduced the formation of resorption lacunae compared to RANKL alone [3].

HG-9-91-01 (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) enhanced the expression of IL-10 whereas downregulated the levels of IL-12 and TNF-α in the colon tissue of the TNBS mice [4].

[1]. Sundberg T B, Choi H G, Song J H, et al. Small-molecule screening identifies inhibition of salt-inducible kinases as a therapeutic strategy to enhance immunoregulatory functions of dendritic cells[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014, 111(34): 12468-12473.
[2]. Clark K, MacKenzie K F, Petkevicius K, et al. Phosphorylation of CRTC3 by the salt-inducible kinases controls the interconversion of classically activated and regulatory macrophages[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2012, 109(42): 16986-16991.
[3]. Lombardi M S, GilliÉron C, Berkelaar M, et al. Salt-inducible kinases (SIK) inhibition reduces RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis[J]. PloS one, 2017, 12(10): e0185426.
[4]. Fu Y, Ma G, Zhang Y, et al. HG-9-91-01 Attenuates murine experimental colitis by promoting interleukin-10 production in colonic macrophages through the SIK/CRTC3 pathway[J]. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 2021, 27(11): 1821-1831.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 1456858-58-4 SDF
Chemical Name (Z)-N-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-N'-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(6-((4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl)amino)pyrimidin-4-yl)carbamimidic acid
Canonical SMILES CC1=C(/N=C(O)/N(C2=NC=NC(NC3=CC=C(N4CCN(CC4)C)C=C3)=C2)C5=C(OC)C=C(OC)C=C5)C(C)=CC=C1
Formula C32H37N7O3 M.Wt 567.68
Solubility ≥ 56.8mg/mL in DMSO Storage Store at -20°C
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

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Research Update

Salt-inducible kinases inhibitor HG-9-91-01 targets RIPK3 kinase activity to alleviate necroptosis-mediated inflammatory injury

Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) functions as a central regulator of necroptosis, mediating signaling transduction to activate pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) phosphorylation. Increasing evidences show that RIPK3 contributes to the pathologies of inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis, infection and colitis. Here, we identified a novel small molecular compound Salt-inducible Kinases (SIKs) inhibitor HG-9-91-01 inhibiting necroptosis by targeting RIPK3 kinase activity. We found that SIKs inhibitor HG-9-91-01 could block TNF- or Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated necroptosis independent of SIKs. We revealed that HG-9-91-01 dramatically decreased cellular activation of RIPK3 and MLKL. Meanwhile, HG-9-91-01 inhibited the association of RIPK3 with MLKL and oligomerization of downstream MLKL. Interestingly, we found that HG-9-91-01 also trigger RIPK3-RIPK1-caspase 1-caspase 8-dependent apoptosis, which activated cleavage of GSDME leading to its dependent pyroptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that SIKs inhibitor HG-9-91-01 directly inhibited RIPK3 kinase activity to block necroptosis and interacted with RIPK3 and recruited RIPK1 to activate caspases leading to cleave GSDME. Importantly, mice pretreated with HG-9-91-01 showed resistance to TNF-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Consistently, HG-9-91-01 treatment protected mice against Staphylococcus aureus-mediated lung damage through targeting RIPK3 kinase activity. Overall, our results revealed that SIKs inhibitor HG-9-91-01 is a novel inhibitor of RIPK3 kinase and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of necroptosis-mediated inflammatory diseases.

HG-9-91-01 Attenuates Murine Experimental Colitis by Promoting Interleukin-10 Production in Colonic Macrophages Through the SIK/CRTC3 Pathway

Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that plays a pivotal role in maintaining mucosal immune homeostasis. As a novel synthetic inhibitor of salt-inducible kinases (SIKs), HG-9-91-01 can effectively enhance IL-10 secretion at the cellular level, but its in vivo immunoregulatory effects remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of HG-9-91-01 in murine colitis models.
Methods: The anti-inflammatory effects of HG-9-91-01 were evaluated on 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-, dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice, and IL-10 knockout chronic colitis mice. The in vivo effector cell of HG-9-91-01 was identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The underlying mechanism of HG-9-91-01 was investigated via overexpressing SIKs in ANA-1 macrophages and TNBS colitis mice.
Results: Treatment with HG-9-91-01 showed favorable anticolitis effects in both TNBS- and DSS-treated mice through significantly promoting IL-10 expression in colonic macrophages but failed to protect against IL-10 KO murine colitis. Further study indicated that HG-9-91-01 markedly enhanced the nuclear level of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 3 (CRTC3), whereas treatment with lentiviruses encoding SIK protein markedly decreased the nuclear CRTC3 level in HG-9-91-01-treated ANA-1 macrophages. In addition, intracolonic administration with lentiviruses encoding SIK protein significantly decreased the nuclear CRTC3 level in the lamina propria mononuclear cells and ended the anti-inflammatory activities of HG-9-91-01.
Conclusions: We found that HG-9-91-01 promoted the IL-10 expression of colonic macrophages and exhibited its anticolitis activity through the SIK/CRTC3 axis, and thus it may represent a promising strategy for inflammatory bowel disease therapy.

The salt-inducible kinases inhibitor HG-9-91-01 exhibits antidepressant-like actions in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

Major depressive disorder is a frequently occurring neuropsychiatric disorder throughout the world. However, the limited and delayed therapeutic efficacy of monoaminergic medications has led to intensive research efforts to develop novel antidepressants. We have previously demonstrated that hippocampal salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) plays a role in the pathogenesis of depression via regulating the downstream CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1)-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. HG-9-91-01 is a potent and selective inhibitor of salt-inducible kinases (SIKs). The present study aims to explore whether HG-9-91-01 has antidepressant-like actions in male C57BL/6J mice. The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression, various behavioral tests, western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, stereotactic infusion, and viral-mediated genetic knockdown were used together. It was found that hippocampal infusion of HG-9-91-01 induced significant antidepressant-like effects in the CUMS model, accompanied with preventing the enhancement of CUMS on the hippocampal SIK2 expression and cytoplasmic translocation of CRTC1. HG-9-91-01 treatment also reversed the decreasing effects of CUMS on the BDNF signaling cascade and adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Moreover, the antidepressant-like actions of HG-9-91-01 in mice required the hippocampal CRTC1-CREB-BDNF pathway. In conclusion, HG-9-91-01 has potential of being a novel antidepressant candidate.

In vivo screen identifies a SIK inhibitor that induces β cell proliferation through a transient UPR

It is known that β cell proliferation expands the β cell mass during development and under certain hyperglycemic conditions in the adult, a process that may be used for β cell regeneration in diabetes. Here, through a new high-throughput screen using a luminescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (LUCCI) in zebrafish, we identify HG-9-91-01 as a driver of proliferation and confirm this effect in mouse and human β cells. HG-9-91-01 is an inhibitor of salt-inducible kinases (SIKs), and overexpression of Sik1 specifically in β cells blocks the effect of HG-9-91-01 on β cell proliferation. Single-cell transcriptomic analyses of mouse β cells demonstrate that HG-9-91-01 induces a wave of activating transcription factor (ATF)6-dependent unfolded protein response (UPR) before cell cycle entry. Importantly, the UPR wave is not associated with an increase in insulin expression. Additional mechanistic studies indicate that HG-9-91-01 induces multiple signalling effectors downstream of SIK inhibition, including CRTC1, CRTC2, ATF6, IRE1 and mTOR, which integrate to collectively drive β cell proliferation.

SIK2 maintains breast cancer stemness by phosphorylating LRP6 and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling

Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are the main drivers of recurrence and metastasis. However, commonly used drugs rarely target BCSCs. Via screenings, we found that Salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) participated in breast cancer (BC) stemness maintenance and zebrafish embryos development. SIK2 was upregulated in recurrence samples. Knockdown of SIK2 expression reduced the proportion of BCSCs and the tumor initiation of BC cells. Mechanistically, SIK2, phosphorylated by CK1α, directly phosphorylated LRP6 in a SIK2 kinase activity-dependent manner, leading to Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation. ARN-3236 and HG-9-91-01, inhibitors of SIK2, inhibited LRP6 phosphorylation and β-catenin accumulation and disturbed stemness maintenance. In addition, the SIK2-activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling led to induction of IDH1 expression, causing metabolic reprogramming in BC cells. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is regulated by different kinases in response to metabolic requirement of CSCs, and suggest that SIK2 inhibition may potentially be a strategy for eliminating BCSCs.


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