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GW4869

Catalog No.GC19186

GW4869 Chemical Structure

GW4869 is a noncompetitive neutral sphingomyelinase(N-SMase) inhibitor with an IC50 of 1 uM.

Size Price Stock Qty
2mg
$61.00
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5mg
$88.00
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10mg
$147.00
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25mg
$308.00
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50mg
$529.00
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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.

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Quality Control

Quality Control & SDS

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Protocol

Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

MCF7 human breast cancer cells

Preparation method

GW-4869 was routinely stored at −80 °C as a 1.5 mm stock suspension in DMSO. Right before use, the suspension was solubilized by the addition of 5% methane sulfonic acid (MSA) (2.5 μl of 5% MSA in sterile double-distilled H2O were added to 50 μl of GW4869 stock suspension; therefore, the concentration of the GW-4869 stock solution at the time of the experiments was 1.43 mm). The suspension was mixed and warmed up at 37 °C until clear.

Reaction Conditions

30 min

Applications

GW4869 is a noncompetitive neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibitor with an IC50 of 1 μM.GW4869 (10 μm) partially inhibited TNF-induced sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis, and 20 μm of the compound was protected completely from the loss of SM. The action of GW4869 occurred downstream of the drop in glutathione, which was shown previously to occur upstream of the activation of N-SMase. GW4869 does not interfere with other key TNF-mediated signaling effects. GW4869 was able, in a dose-dependent manner, to significantly protect from cell death as measured by nuclear condensation, caspase activation, PARP degradation, and trypan blue uptake.

Animal experiment [2]:

Animal models

Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice

Dosage form

GW 4869, dissolved in DMSO (0.005%), was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected at one dose of 2.5μg/g before sham or CLP surgery.

Applications

Pre-treatment with GW 4869 significantly impaired release of both exosomes and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) in RAW264.7 macrophages. WT mice pretreated with GW4869 displayed lower amounts of exosomes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum than control PBS-injected mice. Accordingly, GW4869 treatment diminished the sepsis-induced cardiac inflammation, attenuated myocardial depression and prolonged survival.

References:

[1]. Luberto, Chiara, et al. "Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-induced cell death in MCF7 by a novel inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase." Journal of Biological Chemistry 277.43 (2002): 41128-41139.

[2]. Essandoh, Kobina, et al. "Blockade of exosome generation with GW4869 dampens the sepsis-induced inflammation and cardiac dysfunction." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease 1852.11 (2015): 2362-2371.

Background

GW4869 is a noncompetitive neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor with an IC50 of 1 uM.

GW4869 (10 uM) partially inhibits TNF-induced sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis, and 20 uM of the compound is protected completely from the loss of SM. The addition of 10-20 uM GW4869 completely inhibits the initial accumulation of ceramide, whereas this effect is partially lost at later time points (24 h). The action of GW4869 occurs downstream of the drop in glutathione. GW4869 is able, in a dose-dependent manner, to significantly protect from cell death. These protective effects are accompanied by significant inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase 9 activation, therefore localizing N-SMase activation upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction[1].

Pre-treatment with GW4869 significantly impairs release of both exosomes and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) in RAW264.7 macrophages. At 12 h after LPS treatment or CLP surgery, WT mice pretreated with GW4869 displays lower amounts of exosomes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum than control PBS-injected mice. Accordingly, GW4869 treatment diminishes the sepsis-induced cardiac inflammation, attenuates myocardial depression and prolongs survival[2].

References:
[1]. Luberto C, et al. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-induced cell death in MCF7 by a novel inhibitor of neutralsphingomyelinase. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 25;277(43):41128-39.
[2]. Essandoh K, et al. Blockade of exosome generation with GW4869 dampens the sepsis-induced inflammation and cardiac dysfunction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Nov;1852(11):2362-71.
[3]. Nakamura H, et al. Sphingomyelin Regulates the Activity of Secretory Phospholipase A2 in the Plasma Membrane. J Cell Biochem. 2015 Sep;116(9):1898-907.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 6823-69-4 SDF
Synonyms N/A
Chemical Name 3,3'-(1,4-phenylene)bis[N-[4-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenyl]-dihydrochloride-2-propenamide
Canonical SMILES O=C(NC1=CC=C(C2=NCCN2)C=C1)/C=C/C3=CC=C(/C=C/C(NC4=CC=C(C5=NCCN5)C=C4)=O)C=C3.[H]Cl.[H]Cl
Formula C30H30Cl2N6O2 M.Wt 577.5
Solubility H2O : < 0.1 mg/mL (insoluble); DMSO : 10 mg/mL Storage Store at -20°C, ready to use
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

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Research Update

Blockade of exosome generation with GW4869 dampens the sepsis-induced inflammation and cardiac dysfunction

Biochim Biophys Acta2015 Nov;1852(11):2362-71.PMID: 26300484DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.08.010

Sepsis is an infection-induced severe inflammatory disorder that leads to multiple organ failure. Amongst organs affected, myocardial depression is believed to be a major contributor to septic death. While it has been identified that large amounts of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines are culprit for triggering cardiac dysfunction in sepsis, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Additionally, recent studies have shown that exosomes released from bacteria-infected macrophages are pro-inflammatory. Hence, we examined in this study whether blocking the generation of exosomes would be protective against sepsis-induced inflammatory response and cardiac dysfunction. To this end, we pre-treated RAW264.7 macrophages with GW4869, an inhibitor of exosome biogenesis/release, followed by endotoxin (LPS) challenge. In vivo, we injected wild-type (WT) mice with GW4869 for 1h prior to endotoxin treatment or cecal ligation/puncture (CLP) surgery. We observed that pre-treatment with GW4869 significantly impaired release of both exosomes and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) in RAW264.7 macrophages. At 12h after LPS treatment or CLP surgery, WT mice pre-treated with GW4869 displayed lower amounts of exosomes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum than control PBS-injected mice. Accordingly, GW4869 treatment diminished the sepsis-induced cardiac inflammation, attenuated myocardial depression and prolonged survival. Together, our findings indicate that blockade of exosome generation in sepsis dampens the sepsis-triggered inflammatory response and thereby, improves cardiac function and survival.

Blockade of lncRNA-ASLNCS5088-enriched exosome generation in M2 macrophages by GW4869 dampens the effect of M2 macrophages on orchestrating fibroblast activation

FASEB J2019 Nov;33(11):12200-12212.PMID: 31373848DOI: 10.1096/fj.201901610

In hypertrophic scar (HS) formation, the type 2 immune response induces the alternatively activated macrophages (M2), which manipulate fibroblasts to differentiate into myofibroblasts with active biologic functions and proliferation. Myofibroblasts express α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and synthesize and produce additional collagen type I and collagen type III, inducing HS formation. However, studies on the mechanism of M2 macrophage modulation are only based on the recognition of profibrotic factors such as TGF-β1 secreted by macrophages. The influence of exosomes from M2 macrophages on scar formation is still unknown. Both M2 macrophages and myofibroblasts highly express glutaminases (GLSs). GLS is a critical enzyme in glutaminolysis and is important for M2 macrophage and fibroblast polarization. In this study, we found that in a TGF-β1-stimulated coculture system, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) named lncRNA-ASLNCS5088 was enriched in M2 macrophage-derived exosomes. This lncRNA could be transferred with high efficiency to fibroblasts and acted as an endogenous sponge to adsorb microRNA-200c-3p, resulting in increased GLS and α-SMA expression. Pretreatment with GW4869, which impairs M2 macrophage exosome synthesis, ameliorated these pathologic changes in fibroblasts in vitro. Local injection in the late scar formation period with GW4869 reduced α-SMA+ fibroblasts and alleviated the fibrosis of tissue after wound healing in vivo.-Chen, J., Zhou, R., Liang, Y., Fu, X., Wang, D., Wang, C. Blockade of lncRNA-ASLNCS5088-enriched exosome generation in M2 macrophages by GW4869 dampens the effect of M2 macrophages on orchestrating fibroblast activation.

Cancer-associated fibroblast exosomes regulate survival and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells

Oncogene2017 Mar 30;36(13):1770-1778.PMID: 27669441DOI: 10.1038/onc.2016.353

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) comprise the majority of the tumor bulk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Current efforts to eradicate these tumors focus predominantly on targeting the proliferation of rapidly growing cancer epithelial cells. We know that this is largely ineffective with resistance arising in most tumors following exposure to chemotherapy. Despite the long-standing recognition of the prominence of CAFs in PDAC, the effect of chemotherapy on CAFs and how they may contribute to drug resistance in neighboring cancer cells is not well characterized. Here, we show that CAFs exposed to chemotherapy have an active role in regulating the survival and proliferation of cancer cells. We found that CAFs are intrinsically resistant to gemcitabine, the chemotherapeutic standard of care for PDAC. Further, CAFs exposed to gemcitabine significantly increase the release of extracellular vesicles called exosomes. These exosomes increased chemoresistance-inducing factor, Snail, in recipient epithelial cells and promote proliferation and drug resistance. Finally, treatment of gemcitabine-exposed CAFs with an inhibitor of exosome release, GW4869, significantly reduces survival in co-cultured epithelial cells, signifying an important role of CAF exosomes in chemotherapeutic drug resistance. Collectively, these findings show the potential for exosome inhibitors as treatment options alongside chemotherapy for overcoming PDAC chemoresistance.

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Average Rating: 5 ★★★★★ (Based on Reviews and 4 reference(s) in Google Scholar.)

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