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(R)-(-)-Gossypol acetic acid (AT-101 (acetic acid))

Catalog No.GC34096

(R)-(-)-Gossypol acetic acid (AT-101 (acetic acid)) Chemical Structure

Size Price Stock Qty
10mM*1mLinDMSO
$111.00
In stock
10mg
$101.00
In stock
50mg
$318.00
In stock

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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.

Product Documents

Quality Control & SDS

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Protocol

Cell experiment:

Two representative UM-SCC cell lines, UM-SCC-6 and UM-SCC-14A, are continuously exposed to 0 (vehicle control), 5 or 10 μM (±)-Gossypol, (R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) or (+)-Gossypol in a 6-day MTT cell survival assay[1].

References:

[1]. Oliver CL, et al. In vitro effects of the BH3 mimetic, (-)-Gossypol, on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Nov 15;10(22):7757-63.
[2]. Sun Y, et al. Apogossypolone, a nonpeptidic small molecule inhibitor targeting Bcl-2 family proteins, effectively inhibits growth of diffuse large cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008 Sep;7(9):1418-26.

Background

(R)-(-)-Gossypol acetic acid (AT-101 (acetic acid)) is the levorotatory isomer of a natural product Gossypol. AT-101 is determined to bind to Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL proteins with Kis of 260±30 nM, 170±10 nM, and 480±40 nM, respectively.

The natural racemic Gossypol has two enantiomers, namely the (R)-(-)-Gossypol acetic acid (AT-101 (acetic acid)) and (+)-Gossypol enantiomers. (R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) and (+)-Gossypol binds to Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL with similar binding affinities, AT-101 is more potent than (+)-Gossypol in inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis, possibly due to the influence of serum in the cell culture experiments. The racemic form and each of the enantiomers of Gossypol are tested against UM-SCC-6 and UM-SCC-14A in 6-day MTT assays. (R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) exhibits greater growth inhibition relative to (±)-Gossypol than (+)-Gossypol in both cell lines tested (P<0.001). An intermediate growth inhibitory effect is observed with (±)-Gossypol but this effect is only observed at the higher dose of Gossypol (10 μM, P<0.0001). (R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) binds to the BH3-binding groove of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 proteins with fairly high affinity, has potent activity against head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, it induces apoptosis with high efficiency in HNSCC tumor cells that express functional p53 and that also kills tumor cells with mutant p53 by a different mechanism. (R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) doses required to inhibit the growth of human fibroblast cell lines by 50% were 2- to 10-fold higher than for HNSCC cell lines. To inhibit human oral keratinocyte growth by 50%, (R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) concentrations are 2-to 3-fold higher than for HNSCC cell lines. (R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) causes dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth in ten UM-SCC cell lines over a range from 0.5 to 10 μM in a 6-day MTT assay. The relative sensitivity of the cell lines vary from a very sensitive group with an IC50 of 2-5 μM and a less sensitive group with IC50 clusters around 10 μM[1]. (R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) is determined to bind to Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL proteins with Ki values of 260±30 nM, 170±10 nM, and 480±40 nM, respectively[2].

[1]. Oliver CL, et al. In vitro effects of the BH3 mimetic, (-)-Gossypol, on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Nov 15;10(22):7757-63. [2]. Sun Y, et al. Apogossypolone, a nonpeptidic small molecule inhibitor targeting Bcl-2 family proteins, effectively inhibits growth of diffuse large cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008 Sep;7(9):1418-26.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 866541-93-7 SDF
Synonyms N/A
Chemical Name N/A
Canonical SMILES OC1=C2C(C=O)=C(O)C(O)=C(C(C)C)C2=CC(C)=[C@]1[C@]3=C(C)C=C4C(C(C)C)=C(O)C(O)=C(C=O)C4=C3O.CC(O)=O.[R]
Formula C32H34O10 M.Wt 578.61
Solubility DMSO : 39.33 mg/mL (67.97 mM) Storage Store at -20°C, protect from light, stored under nitrogen
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

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