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AMG-176

Catalog No.GC19452

AMG-176 Chemical Structure

AMG-176 (Tapotoclax) is a potent, selective and orally active MCL-1 inhibitor, with a Ki of 0.13 nM.

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1mg
$612.00
In stock
5mg
$1,755.00
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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.

Product Documents

Quality Control & SDS

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Protocol

Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

C002M and C057M melanoma cell lines

Preparation Method

C002M and C057M were treated with the MCL1 inhibitor (AMG-176, 5 μM) for 72 hours and cell death was measured by Annexin V staining.

Reaction Conditions

AMG-176 5uM; 72h

Applications

AMG-176 has a weak ability to induce apoptosis in C002M melanoma cell line, but a strong ability to induce apoptosis in C057M melanoma cell line. AMG-176 has a synergistic effect with I-BET151 in these two melanoma cell lines.

Animal experiment [2]:

Animal models

Human MCL1 Knock-In Mice

Preparation Method

Ultiple myeloma cells (cell line OPM-2 luc) were injected s.c. in the right flank of mice (5 × 106 cells). Animals were randomized into groups (n = 10 per group). Animals were then orally administered with AMG-176 daily, 2×/week, or 1×/week.

Dosage form

10mg/kg;20 mg/kg;30 mg/kg; 60mg/kg. 2h-24h

Applications

Dose-dependent activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in OPM-2 xenografts, as measured by activated BAK, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, was detected as early as 2 hours after oral administration of AMG-176, with sustained cleaved PARP and activated BAK detectable through 12 hours and cleaved caspase-3 through 24 hours. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a similar dose-dependent increase in cleaved caspase-3.

References:

[1]. Tseng HY, Dreyer J, et,al.Co-targeting bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins and MCL1 induces synergistic cell death in melanoma. Int J Cancer. 2020 Oct 15;147(8):2176-2189. doi: 10.1002/ijc.33000. Epub 2020 Apr 24. PMID: 32249419.

[2]. Caenepeel S, Brown SP,et,al. AMG 176, a Selective MCL1 Inhibitor, Is Effective in Hematologic Cancer Models Alone and in Combination with Established Therapies. Cancer Discov. 2018 Dec;8(12):1582-1597. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0387. Epub 2018 Sep 25. Erratum in: Cancer Discov. 2019 Jul;9(7):980. PMID: 30254093.

Background

AMG-176 (Tapotoclax) is a potent, selective and orally active MCL-1 inhibitor, with a Ki of 0.13 nM. AMG-176 is a potent antagonist of Mcl-1; in cell free system the Ki value is <1 nM. In whole cells, the drug was tested in different leukemias, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma cell lines[1]. AMG-176 incubations resulted in time- and dose-dependent CLL cell death. At 100 and 300 nmol/L, there was 30% and 45% cell death at 24 hours. These concentrations did not result in significant cell death in normal hematopoietic cells. Presence of stroma did not affect AMG-176-induced CLL cell death[4].AMG-176 induced cell death was inversely correlated with endogenous McL-1 levels[5].

AMG-176 has a weak ability to induce apoptosis in C002M melanoma cell line, but a strong ability to induce apoptosis in C057M melanoma cell line. AMG-176 has a synergistic effect with I-BET151 in these two melanoma cell lines[2]. AMG-176 completely neutralized the survival effect of the IDO1/Kyn/AHR pathway in CLL cells[6].

AMG-176 Is Efficacious in Multiple Myeloma. In vivo, Dose-dependent activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in OPM-2 xenografts, as measured by activated BAK, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, was detected as early as 2 hours after oral administration of AMG 176, with sustained cleaved PARP and activated BAK detectable through 12 hours and cleaved caspase-3 through 24 hours. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a similar dose-dependent increase in cleaved caspase-3[3].

References:
[1]:Garner TP, Lopez A, et,al. Progress in targeting the BCL-2 family of proteins. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2017 Aug;39:133-142. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2017.06.014. Epub 2017 Aug 17. PMID: 28735187; PMCID: PMC5667545.
[2]: Tseng HY, Dreyer J, et,al.Co-targeting bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins and MCL1 induces synergistic cell death in melanoma. Int J Cancer. 2020 Oct 15;147(8):2176-2189. doi: 10.1002/ijc.33000. Epub 2020 Apr 24. PMID: 32249419.
[3]: Caenepeel S, Brown SP,et,al. AMG 176, a Selective MCL1 Inhibitor, Is Effective in Hematologic Cancer Models Alone and in Combination with Established Therapies. Cancer Discov. 2018 Dec;8(12):1582-1597. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0387. Epub 2018 Sep 25. Erratum in: Cancer Discov. 2019 Jul;9(7):980. PMID: 30254093.
[4]:Yi X, Sarkar A, et,al. AMG-176, an Mcl-1 Antagonist, Shows Preclinical Efficacy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2020 Jul 15;26(14):3856-3867. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1397. Epub 2020 Jan 14. PMID: 31937611; PMCID: PMC7358119.
[5]: Yi X, Jain N, et,al. Targeting Mcl-1 by AMG-176 During Ibrutinib and Venetoclax Therapy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Front Oncol. 2022 Feb 22;12:833714. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2022.833714. PMID: 35273915; PMCID: PMC8901605.
[6]: Atene CG, Fiorcari S, et,al. Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase 1 Mediates Survival Signals in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia via Kynurenine/Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated MCL1 Modulation. Front Immunol. 2022 Mar 18;13:832263. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.832263. PMID: 35371054; PMCID: PMC8971515.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 1883727-34-1 SDF
Synonyms N/A
Chemical Name N/A
Canonical SMILES ClC1=CC=C2C(CCC[C@@]23CN(C[C@@](CC4)([H])[C@]4([H])[C@H](/C=C/C[C@H](C)[C@H]5C)OC)C6=CC(C(NS5(=O)=O)=O)=CC=C6OC3)=C1
Formula C33H41ClN2O5S M.Wt 613.21
Solubility Soluble in DMSO Storage Store at -20°C
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

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Research Update

AMG 176, a Selective MCL1 Inhibitor, Is Effective in Hematologic Cancer Models Alone and in Combination with Established Therapies

Cancer Discov2018 Dec;8(12):1582-1597.PMID: 30254093DOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0387

The prosurvival BCL2 family member MCL1 is frequently dysregulated in cancer. To overcome the significant challenges associated with inhibition of MCL1 protein-protein interactions, we rigorously applied small-molecule conformational restriction, which culminated in the discovery of AMG 176, the first selective MCL1 inhibitor to be studied in humans. We demonstrate that MCL1 inhibition induces a rapid and committed step toward apoptosis in subsets of hematologic cancer cell lines, tumor xenograft models, and primary patient samples. With the use of a human MCL1 knock-in mouse, we demonstrate that MCL1 inhibition at active doses of AMG 176 is tolerated and correlates with clear pharmacodynamic effects, demonstrated by reductions in B cells, monocytes, and neutrophils. Furthermore, the combination of AMG 176 and venetoclax is synergistic in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) tumor models and in primary patient samples at tolerated doses. These results highlight the therapeutic promise of AMG 176 and the potential for combinations with other BH3 mimetics. SIGNIFICANCE: AMG 176 is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable MCL1 inhibitor that induces a rapid commitment to apoptosis in models of hematologic malignancies. The synergistic combination of AMG 176 and venetoclax demonstrates robust activity in models of AML at tolerated doses, highlighting the promise of BH3-mimetic combinations in hematologic cancers.See related commentary by Leber et al., p. 1511.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1494.

AMG-176, an Mcl-1 Antagonist, Shows Preclinical Efficacy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Clin Cancer Res2020 Jul 15;26(14):3856-3867.PMID: 31937611DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1397

Purpose: Survival of CLL cells due to the presence of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 has been established. Direct inhibition of Bcl-2 by venetoclax and indirect targeting of Mcl-1 with transcription inhibitors have been successful approaches for CLL. AMG-176 is a selective and direct antagonist of Mcl-1, which has shown efficacy in several hematologic malignancies; however, its effect on CLL is elusive. We evaluated biological and molecular effects of AMG-176 in primary CLL cells.
Experimental design: Using samples from patients (n = 74) with CLL, we tested effects of AMG-176 on CLL and normal hematopoietic cell death and compared importance of CLL prognostic factors on this biological activity. We evaluated CLL cell apoptosis in the presence of stromal cells and identified cell death pathway including stabilization of Mcl-1 protein. Finally, we tested a couplet of AMG-176 and venetoclax in CLL lymphocytes.
Results: AMG-176 incubations resulted in time- and dose-dependent CLL cell death. At 100 and 300 nmol/L, there was 30% and 45% cell death at 24 hours. These concentrations did not result in significant cell death in normal hematopoietic cells. Presence of stroma did not affect AMG-176-induced CLL cell death. IGHV unmutated status, high β2M and Mcl-1 protein levels resulted in slightly lower cell death. Mcl-1, but not Bcl-2 protein levels, in CLL cells increased with AMG-176. Low concentrations of venetoclax (1-30 nmol/L) were additive or synergistic with AMG-176.
Conclusions: AMG-176 is active in inducing CLL cell death while sparing normal blood cells. Combination with low-dose venetoclax was additive or synergistic.

Targeting MCL-1 in hematologic malignancies: Rationale and progress

Blood Rev2020 Nov;44:100672.PMID: 32204955DOI: 10.1016/j.blre.2020.100672

Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1) is an antiapoptotic protein that plays a key role in promoting cell survival in multiple myeloma (MM), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Overexpression of MCL-1 is associated with treatment resistance and poor prognosis; thus, MCL-1 inhibitors are rational therapeutic options for malignancies depending on MCL-1. Several MCL-1 inhibitors have entered clinical trials, including AZD5991, S64315, AMG 176, and AMG 397. A key area of investigation is whether MCL-1 inhibitors will complement the activity of BCL-2 inhibitors, such as venetoclax, and synergistically enhance anti-tumor efficacy when given in combination with other anti-cancer drugs. Another important question is whether a safe therapeutic window can be found for this new class of inhibitors. In summary, inhibition of MCL-1 shows potential as a treatment for hematologic malignancies and clinical evaluation of MCL-1 inhibitors is currently underway.

Correction: AMG 176, a Selective MCL1 Inhibitor, Is Effective in Hematologic Cancer Models Alone and in Combination with Established Therapies

Cancer Discov2019 Jul;9(7):980.PMID: 31262746DOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-0577

B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway and Bcl-2 family prosurvival proteins, specifically Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, are functional in the pathobiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A pivotal and apical molecule in the BCR pathway is Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Together, BTK, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 participate in the maintenance, migration, proliferation, and survival of CLL cells. Several ongoing and published clinical trials in CLL reported high rates of remission, namely, undetectable measurable residual disease (u-MRD) status with combined BTK inhibitor ibrutinib and Bcl-2 antagonist, venetoclax. While the majority of patients achieve complete remission with undetectable-measurable residual disease, at least one third of patients do not achieve this milestone. We hypothesized that cells persistent during ibrutinib and venetoclax therapy may be sensitive to combined venetoclax and Mcl-1 inhibitor, AMG-176. To test this hypothesis, we took peripheral blood samples at baseline, after Cycle 1 and Cycle 3 of ibrutinib monotherapy, after one week and 1 cycle of ibrutinib plus venetoclax therapy. These serial samples were tested for pharmacodynamic changes and treated in vitro with AMG-176 or in combination with venetoclax. Compared to C1D1 cells, residual cells during ibrutinib and venetoclax treatment were inherently resistant to endogenous cell death. Single agent exposure induced some apoptosis but combination of 100 nM venetoclax and 100 or 300 nM of AMG-176 resulted in 40-100% cell death in baseline samples. Cells obtained after four cycles of ibrutinib and one cycle of venetoclax, when treated with such concentration of venetoclax and AMG-176, showed 10-80% cell death. BCR signaling pathway, measured as autophosphorylation of BTK was inhibited throughout therapy in all post-therapy samples. Among four anti-apoptotic proteins, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1 decreased during therapy in most samples. Proapoptotic proteins decreased during therapy. Collectively, these data provide a rationale to test Mcl-1 antagonists alone or in combination in CLL during treatment with ibrutinib and venetoclax.

Targeting Mcl-1 by AMG-176 During Ibrutinib and Venetoclax Therapy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Front Oncol2022 Feb 22;12:833714.PMID: 35273915DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2022.833714

B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway and Bcl-2 family prosurvival proteins, specifically Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, are functional in the pathobiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A pivotal and apical molecule in the BCR pathway is Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Together, BTK, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 participate in the maintenance, migration, proliferation, and survival of CLL cells. Several ongoing and published clinical trials in CLL reported high rates of remission, namely, undetectable measurable residual disease (u-MRD) status with combined BTK inhibitor ibrutinib and Bcl-2 antagonist, venetoclax. While the majority of patients achieve complete remission with undetectable-measurable residual disease, at least one third of patients do not achieve this milestone. We hypothesized that cells persistent during ibrutinib and venetoclax therapy may be sensitive to combined venetoclax and Mcl-1 inhibitor, AMG-176. To test this hypothesis, we took peripheral blood samples at baseline, after Cycle 1 and Cycle 3 of ibrutinib monotherapy, after one week and 1 cycle of ibrutinib plus venetoclax therapy. These serial samples were tested for pharmacodynamic changes and treated in vitro with AMG-176 or in combination with venetoclax. Compared to C1D1 cells, residual cells during ibrutinib and venetoclax treatment were inherently resistant to endogenous cell death. Single agent exposure induced some apoptosis but combination of 100 nM venetoclax and 100 or 300 nM of AMG-176 resulted in 40-100% cell death in baseline samples. Cells obtained after four cycles of ibrutinib and one cycle of venetoclax, when treated with such concentration of venetoclax and AMG-176, showed 10-80% cell death. BCR signaling pathway, measured as autophosphorylation of BTK was inhibited throughout therapy in all post-therapy samples. Among four anti-apoptotic proteins, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1 decreased during therapy in most samples. Proapoptotic proteins decreased during therapy. Collectively, these data provide a rationale to test Mcl-1 antagonists alone or in combination in CLL during treatment with ibrutinib and venetoclax.

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