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Catalog No.GC38465

GsMTx4 Chemical Structure

GsMTx4 selectively inhibits cation-permeable mechanosensitive channels (MSCs) belonging to the Piezo and TRP channel families.

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Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

HEK 293 cells

Preparation method

For Piezo1 channels, the extracellular solution contained 145 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 3 mM MgCl2, 0.1 mM CaCl2, and 10 mM HEPES (pH 7.4). The pipette solution contained 133 mM CsCl, 10 mM HEPES (pH 7.4). The inhibition produced by application of GsMTx4 was followed by ∼60 s of washout, followed by application of WT GsMTx4 as a control.

Reaction Conditions

5 μM GsMTx4, 40s


GsMTx4 is a spider venom peptide that inhibits cationic mechanosensitive channels (MSCs). A model placing GsMTx4 at the membrane surface, where it is stabilized by the lysines, and occupying a small fraction of the surface area in unstressed membranes. When applied tension reduces lateral pressure in the lipids, the peptides penetrate deeper acting as “area reservoirs” leading to partial relaxation of the outer monolayer, thereby reducing the effective magnitude of stimulus acting on the MSC gate.

Animal experiment [2]:

Animal models

Male C57BL/6 mice

Dosage form

To the WT and ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice, GsMTx4 or vehicle was administered via intraperitoneal injection (IP) at two different time-points, Z12- and ZT0-IP (higher and lower Piezo1 expression periods in the WT mice, respectively). The WT and ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice were injected with 0.75 (low dose-IP) or 1.5 mg/kg (high dose-IP) of GsMTx4 in 100 μL of distilled water.


VF decreased at ZT12-IP in WT mice only with high dose of GsMTx4 but showed no effects in ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice. GsMTx4 did not affect Uvol in both mice at ZT12-IP. A decrease in Uvol was observed in both mice at ZT0-IP; however, it was unrelated to GsMTx4-IP. The effects of GsMTx4 changed associated with the circadian clock and Piezo1 expression level.


[1]. Gnanasambandam R, et al. GsMTx4: Mechanism of Inhibiting Mechanosensitive Ion Channels. Biophys J. 2017 Jan 10;112(1):31-45.

[2]. Ihara, Tatsuya, et al. "Different effects of GsMTx4 on nocturia associated with the circadian clock and Piezo1 expression in mice." Life Sciences 278 (2021): 119555.


GsMTx4 is a 34 amino acid spider venom peptide and belongs to the huwentoxin-1 family[1]. GsMTx4 selectively inhibits cation-permeable mechanosensitive channels (MSCs) belonging to the Piezo, TRPC1 and TRPC6 channels.

GsMTx4 is similar to many other channel-active peptides isolated from spider venom, which are small (3–5 kD) amphipathic molecules built on a conserved inhibitory cysteine-knot (ICK) backbone[4].GsMTx4 has high potency for inhibiting mechanosensitive channels, and its inhibition is not stereospecific, i.e., both its enantiomers (L- and D-form) inhibiting MSCs[3].

GsMTx4 significantly attenuates bladder hyperactivity[2]. Intraperitoneal injection of GsMTx-4 has been shown to reduce mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan or sciatic nerve injury[5], although it does not inhibit SAC currents in cultured DRG neurons[6].

GsMTx4 is an important pharmacological tool for identifying the role of these excitatory MSCs in normal physiology and pathology[4].

[1]. Suchyna TM, et al. Identification of a peptide toxin from Grammostola spatulata spider venom that blocks cation-selective stretch-activated channels. J Gen Physiol. 2000 May;115(5):583-98.
[2]. Liu Q, et al. Increased Piezo1 channel activity in interstitial Cajal-like cells induces bladder hyperactivity by functionally interacting with NCX1 in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Exp Mol Med. 2018 May 7;50(5):60.
[3]. Suchyna T.M., Tape S.E., Gottlieb P.A. Bilayer-dependent inhibition of mechanosensitive channels by neuroactive peptide enantiomers. Nature. 2004;430:235–240.
[4]. Gnanasambandam R, et al. GsMTx4: Mechanism of Inhibiting Mechanosensitive Ion Channels. Biophys J. 2017 Jan 10;112(1):31-45.
[5]. Park SP, et al. A tarantula spider toxin, GsMTx4, reduces mechanical and neuropathic pain. Pain. 2008;137:208–217.
[6]. Drew LJ, , et al.. High-threshold mechanosensitive ion channels blocked by a novel conopeptide mediate pressure-evoked pain. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e515.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 1209500-46-8 SDF
Synonyms N/A
Chemical Name Gly-Cys-Leu-Glu-Phe-Trp-Trp-Lys-Cys-Asn-Pro-Asn-Asp-Asp-Lys-Cys-Cys-Arg-Pro-Lys-Leu-Lys-Cys-Ser-Lys-Leu-Phe-Lys-Leu-Cys-Asn-Phe-Ser-Phe
Canonical SMILES N/A
Formula C185H279N49O45S6 M.Wt 4101.89
Solubility H2O : 16.67 mg/mL Storage Store at -20°C
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

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Research Update

The mechanosensitive ion channel Piezo1 is inhibited by the peptide GsMTx4

Biochemistry2011 Jul 26;50(29):6295-300.PMID: 21696149DOI: 10.1021/bi200770q

Cells can respond to mechanical stress by gating mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs). The cloning of Piezo1, a eukaryotic cation selective MSC, defines a new system for studying mechanical transduction at the cellular level. Because Piezo1 has electrophysiological properties similar to those of endogenous cationic MSCs that are selectively inhibited by the peptide GsMTx4, we tested whether the peptide targets Piezo1 activity. Extracellular GsMTx4 at micromolar concentrations reversibly inhibited ∼80% of the mechanically induced current of outside-out patches from transfected HEK293 cells. The inhibition was voltage insensitive, and as seen with endogenous MSCs, the mirror image d enantiomer inhibited like the l. The rate constants for binding and unbinding based on Piezo1 current kinetics provided association and dissociation rates of 7.0 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 0.11 s(-1), respectively, and a K(D) of ∼155 nM, similar to values previously reported for endogenous MSCs. Consistent with predicted gating modifier behavior, GsMTx4 produced an ∼30 mmHg rightward shift in the pressure-gating curve and was active on closed channels. In contrast, streptomycin, a nonspecific inhibitor of cationic MSCs, showed the use-dependent inhibition characteristic of open channel block. The peptide did not block currents of the mechanical channel TREK-1 on outside-out patches. Whole-cell Piezo1 currents were also reversibly inhibited by GsMTx4, and although the off rate was nearly identical to that of outside-out patches, differences were observed for the on rate. The ability of GsMTx4 to target the mechanosensitivity of Piezo1 supports the use of this channel in high-throughput screens for pharmacological agents and diagnostic assays.

Piezo channels and GsMTx4: Two milestones in our understanding of excitatory mechanosensitive channels and their role in pathology

Prog Biophys Mol Biol2017 Nov;130(Pt B):244-253.PMID: 28778608DOI: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2017.07.011

Discovery of Piezo channels and the reporting of their sensitivity to the inhibitor GsMTx4 were important milestones in the study of non-selective cationic mechanosensitive channels (MSCs) in normal physiology and pathogenesis. GsMTx4 had been used for years to investigate the functional role of cationic MSCs, especially in muscle tissue, but with little understanding of its target or inhibitory mechanism. The sensitivity of Piezo channels to bilayer stress and its robust mechanosensitivity when expressed in heterologous systems were keys to determining GsMTx4's mechanism of action. However, questions remain regarding Piezo's role in muscle function due to the non-selective nature of GsMTx4 inhibition toward membrane mechanoenzymes and the implication of MCS channel types by genetic knockdown. Evidence supporting Piezo like activity, at least in the developmental stages of muscle, is presented. While the MSC targets of GsMTx4 in muscle pathology are unclear, its muscle protective effects are clearly demonstrated in two recent in situ studies on normal cardiomyocytes and dystrophic skeletal muscle. The muscle protective function may be due to the combined effect of GsMTx4's inhibitory action on cationic MSCs like Piezo and TRP, and its potentiation of repolarizing K+ selective MSCs like K2P and SAKCa. Paradoxically, the potent in vitro action of GsMTx4 on many physiological functions seems to conflict with its lack of in situ side-effects on normal animal physiology. Future investigations into cytoskeletal control of sarcolemma mechanics and the suspected inclusion of MSCs in membrane micro/nano sized domains with distinct mechanical properties will aide our understanding of this dichotomy.

GsMTx4-D provides protection to the D2.mdx mouse

Neuromuscul Disord2018 Oct;28(10):868-877.PMID: 30174173DOI: 10.1016/j.nmd.2018.07.005

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a life-limiting muscle disease that has no current effective therapy. Despite mounting evidence that dysregulation of mechanosensitive ion channels is a significant contributor to dystrophy pathogenesis, effective pharmacologic strategies targeting these channels are lacking. GsMTx4, and its enantiomer GsMTx4-D, are peptide inhibitors of mechanosensitive channels with identical activity. In previous studies, acute in vitro application of GsMTx4 to dystrophic murine muscle effectively reduced the excess MSC dependent calcium influx linked to contraction-induced muscle damage. Here we sought to determine if in vivo treatment with GsMTx4-D proffered benefit in the D2.mdx mouse. GsMTx4-D showed a 1-week half-life when administered by subcutaneous injection over four weeks. Informed by these results, D2.mdx mice were then treated by a subcutaneous injection regimen of GsMTx4-D for six weeks followed by determination of muscle mass, muscle susceptibility to eccentric contraction injury and multiple histological indicators of disease progression. The mice showed a reduction in the loss of muscle mass and a decrease in susceptibility to contraction induced injury. These protective effects were realized without reduction in fibrosis, supporting a model where GsMTx4-D acts directly on muscle cells. We propose GsMTx4-D represents a promising new therapy to slow disease progression and may complement other therapies such as anti-inflammatory agents and gene-replacement strategies.

Different effects of GsMTx4 on nocturia associated with the circadian clock and Piezo1 expression in mice

Life Sci2021 Aug 1;278:119555.PMID: 33930366DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119555

Objectives: Nocturia is a major problem in geriatric patients. Clock genes regulate circadian bladder function and Piezo type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 (Piezo1) that senses bladder fullness. We utilized WT and Clock mutant (ClockΔ19/Δ19: nocturia phenotype) mice to determine if the effects of GsMTx4, a Piezo1 inhibitor, is dependent on circadian Piezo1 expression in the bladder.
Methods: We compared voiding behavior in mice after the administration of vehicle, low dose, or high dose of GsMTx4. Intraperitoneal injections (IP) were performed at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 0, lower Piezo1 expression phase (ZT0-IP) and ZT12, higher Piezo1 expression phase (ZT12-IP). Urine volume (Uvol), voiding frequency (VF), and urine volume per void (Uvol/v) were measured using metabolic cages.
Results: VF decreased at ZT12-IP in WT mice only with high dose of GsMTx4 but showed no effects in ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice. VF decreased significantly at ZT0-IP in WT mice after both doses, but only decreased after high dose in ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice. Uvol/v increased in WT mice at ZT0-IP after both doses and at ZT12-IP after high dose. Uvol/v increased in ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice only at ZT0-IP after high dose. GsMTx4 did not affect Uvol in both mice at ZT12-IP. A decrease in Uvol was observed in both mice at ZT0-IP; however, it was unrelated to GsMTx4-IP.
Conclusions: The effects of GsMTx4 changed associated with the circadian clock and Piezo1 expression level. The maximum effect occurred during sleep phase in WT. These results may lead to new therapeutic strategies against nocturia.

GsMTx4 reduces the reflex pressor response during dynamic hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch in decerebrate rats

Physiol Rep2019 Jan;7(1):e13974.PMID: 30632294DOI: 10.14814/phy2.13974

Mechanical signals within contracting skeletal muscles contribute to the generation of the exercise pressor reflex; an important autonomic and cardiovascular control mechanism. In decerebrate rats, the mechanically activated channel inhibitor GsMTx4 was found to reduce the pressor response during static hindlimb muscle stretch; a maneuver used to investigate specifically the mechanical component of the exercise pressor reflex (i.e., the mechanoreflex). However, the effect was found only during the initial phase of the stretch when muscle length was changing and not during the later phase of stretch when muscle length was relatively constant. We tested the hypothesis that in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats, GsMTx4 would reduce the pressor response throughout the duration of a 30 sec, 1 Hz dynamic hindlimb muscle stretch protocol that produced repetitive changes in muscle length. We found that the injection of 10 μg of GsMTx4 into the arterial supply of a hindlimb reduced the peak pressor response (control: 15 ± 4, GsMTx4: 5 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05, n = 8) and the pressor response at multiple time points throughout the duration of the stretch. GsMTx4 had no effect on the pressor response to the hindlimb arterial injection of lactic acid which indicates the lack of local off-target effects. Combined with the recent finding that GsMTx4 reduced the pressor response only initially during static stretch in decerebrate rats, the present findings suggest that GsMTx4-sensitive channels respond primarily to mechanical signals associated with changes in muscle length. The findings add to our currently limited understanding of the channels that contribute to the activation of the mechanoreflex.


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