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Catalog No.: GC44205

Mitoquinol is a ubiquinone derivative that specifically accumulates in mitochondria due to the covalent attachment of the cation triphenylphosphonium.

Mitoquinol Chemical Structure

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Mitoquinol is a ubiquinone derivative that specifically accumulates in mitochondria due to the covalent attachment of the cation triphenylphosphonium. [1 It functions as an antioxidant, preventing lipid peroxidation-induced apoptosis and protecting mitochondria from oxidative damage.[2]

[1]. Kelso, G.F., Porteous, C.M., Coulter, C.V., et al. Selective targeting of a redox-active ubiquinone to mitochondria within cells. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. J. Biol. Chem. 276(7), 4588-4596 (2001).
[2]. O'Malley, Y., Fink, B.D., Ross, N.C., et al. Reactive oxygen and targeted antioxidant administration in endothelial cell mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 281(52), 39766-39775 (2006).

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 845959-55-9 SDF
Chemical Name [10-(2,5-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy-6-methylphenyl)decyl]triphenyl-phosphonium, monomethanesulfonate
Canonical SMILES OC1=C(CCCCCCCCCC[P+](C2=CC=CC=C2)(C3=CC=CC=C3)C4=CC=CC=C4)C(C)=C(O)C(OC)=C1OC.O=S(C)([O-])=O
Formula C37H46O4P•CH3O3S M.Wt 680.8
Solubility DMF: 30 mg/ml,DMSO: 30 mg/ml,Ethanol: 30 mg/ml,PBS (pH 7.2): 0.3 mg/ml Storage Store at -20°C; protect from light
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request

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Research Update

Mitoquinol mesylate (MITOQ) attenuates diethyl nitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma through modulation of mitochondrial antioxidant defense systems

Toxicol Res 2021 Nov 8;38(3):275-291.PMID:PMC9247134DOI:10.1007/s43188-021-00105-1.

Diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced cirrhosis-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model associates cancer progression with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. This study investigated the effects of Mitoquinol mesylate (MitoQ), a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant on DEN-induced oxidative damage in HCC Wistar rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Healthy control, DEN, and MitoQ groups were orally administered exactly 10 mg/kg of distilled water, DEN, and MitoQ, respectively for 16 weeks. Animals in the MitoQ + DEN group were pre-treated with MitoQ for a week followed by co-administration of 10 mg/kg each of MitoQ and DEN. DEN + MitoQ group received DEN for 8 weeks, then co-administration of 10 mg/kg each of DEN and MitoQ till the end of 16th week. Survival index, tumour incidence, hematological profile, liver function indices, lipid profile, mitochondrial membrane composition, mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, and antioxidant defense status in both mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial fractions plus expression of antioxidant genes were assessed. In MitoQ + DEN and DEN + MitoQ groups, 80% survival occurred while tumour incidence decreased by 60% and 40% respectively, compared to the DEN-only treated group. Similarly, MitoQ-administered groups showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the activities of liver function enzymes while hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count, and packed cell volume were significantly elevated compared to the DEN-only treated group. Administration of MitoQ to the DEN-intoxicated groups successfully enhanced the activities of mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase; and up-regulated the expression and activities of SOD2, CAT, and GPx1. Macroscopic and microscopic features indicated a reversal of DEN-induced hepatocellular degeneration in the MitoQ + DEN and DEN + MitoQ groups. These data revealed that MitoQ intervention attenuated DEN-induced oxidative stress through modulation of mitochondrial antioxidant defense systems and alleviated the burden of HCC as a chemotherapeutic agent.

Autophagy regulates functional differentiation of mammary epithelial cells

Autophagy 2021 Feb;17(2):420-438.PMID:31983267DOI:10.1080/15548627.2020.1720427.

Mitochondria operate as a central hub for many metabolic processes by sensing and responding to the cellular environment. Developmental cues from the environment have been implicated in selective autophagy, or mitophagy, of mitochondria during cell differentiation and tissue development. Mitophagy occurring in this context, termed programmed mitophagy, responds to cell state rather than mitochondrial damage and is often accompanied by a metabolic transition. However, little is known about the mechanisms that engage and execute mitophagy under physiological or developmental conditions. As the mammary gland undergoes post-natal development and lactation challenges mitochondrial homeostasis, we investigated the contribution of mitochondria to differentiation of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Using lactogenic differentiation of the HC11 mouse MEC line, we demonstrated that HC11 cells transition to a highly energetic state during differentiation by engaging both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. Interestingly, this transition was lost when autophagy was inhibited with bafilomycin A1 or knockdown of Atg7 (autophagy related 7). To evaluate the specific targeting of mitochondria, we traced mitochondrial oxidation and turnover in vitro with the fluorescent probe, pMitoTimer. Indeed, we found that differentiation engaged mitophagy. To further evaluate the requirement of mitophagy during differentiation, we knocked down the expression of Prkn/parkin in HC11 cells. We found that MEC differentiation was impaired in shPrkn cells, implying that PRKN is required for MEC differentiation. These studies suggest a novel regulation of MEC differentiation through programmed mitophagy and provide a foundation for future studies of development and disease associated with mitochondrial function in the mammary gland.Abbreviations: AA: antimycin A; ATG5: autophagy related 5; BAF: bafilomycin A1; BNIP3: BCL2 interacting protein 3; BNIP3L/NIX: BCL2 interacting protein 3 like; COX8A: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8A; CQ: chloroquine; CSN2: casein beta; ECAR: extracellular acidification rate; FCCP: trifluoromethoxy carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone; FUNDC1: FUN14 domain containing 1; HIF1A: hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha; L1: lactation day 1; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MEC: mammary epithelial cell; mitoQ: Mitoquinol; mROS: mitochondrial reactive oxygen species; OCR: oxygen consumption rate; P: priming; P16: pregnancy day 16; PARP1: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PPARGC1A: PPARG coactivator 1 alpha; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; shNT: short hairpin non-targeting control; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STAT3: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TFAM: transcription factor A, mitochondrial; U: undifferentiated.

Molecular mechanism of Mitoquinol mesylate in mitigating the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma-in silico and in vivo studies

J Cell Biochem 2021 Apr 28.PMID:33909925DOI:10.1002/jcb.29937.

The safety and efficacy of Mitoquinol mesylate (MitoQ) in attenuating the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Wistar rats has been reported. However, the binding modes for MitoQ as well as its molecular mechanisms in cirrhosis and liver cancer have not been fully investigated. This study sought to understand the structural and molecular mechanisms of MitoQ in modulating the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in cirrhotic-HCC rats. The research indicates that the upregulated Nrf2 expression in cirrhotic-HCC rats was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by MitoQ while the activity of SDH was significantly (p < 0.05) increased. Analysis of binding modes revealed MitoQ interacts with amino acid residues in the active pocket of tramtrack and bric-a-brac (BTB) and KELCH domains of KEAP1 with average binding affinities of -66.46 and -74.74 kcal/mol, respectively. Also, MitoQ interacted with the key amino acid residues at the active site of mitochondrial complex II with a higher average binding affinity of -75.76 kcal/mol compared to co-crystallized ligand of complex II (-62.31 kcal/mol). Molecular dynamics simulations data showed the binding of MitoQ to be stable with low eigenvalues while the quantum mechanics calculations suggest MitoQ to be very reactive with its mechanism of chemical reactivity to be via electrophilic reactions. Thus, MitoQ modulates expression of Nrf2 and enhances activity of mitochondrial SDH in cirrhotic-HCC rats via its interaction with key amino acid residues in the active pocket of BTB and KELCH domains of KEAP1 as well as amino residues at the active site of SDH. These findings are significant in demonstrating the potential of Nrf2 and SDH as possible biomarkers for the diagnosis and/or prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients. This study also supports repurposing of mitoQ for the treatment/management of liver cirrhosis and HCC.

The effect of Mitoquinol (MitoQ) on heat stressed skeletal muscle from pigs, and a potential confounding effect of biological sex

J Therm Biol 2021 Apr;97:102900.PMID:33863453DOI:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2021.102900.

Heat stress (HS) poses a major threat to human health and agricultural production. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appear to play key roles in muscle injury caused by HS. We hypothesized that Mitoquinol (MitoQ), would alleviate oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction in skeletal muscle during HS. To address this, crossbred barrows (male pigs) were treated with placebo or MitoQ (40 mg/d) and were then exposed to thermoneutral (TN; 20 °C) or HS (35 °C) conditions for 24 h. Pigs were euthanized following the environmental challenge and the red portion of the semitendinosus (STR) was collected for analysis. Unexpectedly, malondialdehyde concentration, an oxidative stress marker, was similar between environmental and supplement treatments. Heat stress decreased LC3A/B-I (p < 0.05) and increased the ratio of LC3A/B-II/I (p < 0.05), while p62 was similar among groups suggesting increased degradation of autophagosomes during HS. These outcomes were in disagreement with our previous results in muscle from gilts (female pigs). To probe the impact of biological sex on HS-mediated injury in skeletal muscle, we compared STR from these barrows to archived STR from gilts subjected to a similar environmental intervention. We confirmed our previous findings of HS-mediated dysfunction in muscle from gilts but not barrows. These data also raise the possibility that muscle from gilts is more susceptible to environment-induced hyperthermia than muscle from barrows.

Mitochondrial ROS drive resistance to chemotherapy and immune-killing in hypoxic non-small cell lung cancer

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2022 Aug 11;41(1):243.PMID:35953814DOI:10.1186/s13046-022-02447-6.

Background: Solid tumors subjected to intermittent hypoxia are characterized by resistance to chemotherapy and immune-killing by effector T-lymphocytes, particularly tumor-infiltrating Vγ9Vδ2 T-lymphocytes. The molecular circuitries determining this double resistance are not known. Methods: We analyzed a panel of 28 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lines, using an in vitro system simulating continuous and intermittent hypoxia. Chemosensitivity to cisplatin and docetaxel was evaluated by chemiluminescence, ex vivo Vγ9Vδ2 T-lymphocyte expansion and immune-killing by flow cytometry. Targeted transcriptomics identified efflux transporters and nuclear factors involved in this chemo-immuno-resistance. The molecular mechanism linking Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-β (C/EBP-β) isoforms LAP and LIP, ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCA1 transporters were evaluated by immunoblotting, RT-PCR, RNA-IP, ChIP. Oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial ATP, ROS, depolarization, O2 consumption were monitored by spectrophotometer and electronic sensors. The role of ROS/HIF-1α/LAP axis was validated in knocked-out or overexpressing cells, and in humanized (Hu-CD34+NSG) mice bearing LAP-overexpressing tumors. The clinical meaning of LAP was assessed in 60 NSCLC patients prospectively enrolled, treated with chemotherapy. Results: By up-regulating ABCB1 and ABCC1, and down-regulating ABCA1, intermittent hypoxia induced a stronger chemo-immuno-resistance than continuous hypoxia in NSCLC cells. Intermittent hypoxia impaired the electron transport chain and reduced O2 consumption, increasing mitochondrial ROS that favor the stabilization of C/EBP-β mRNA mediated by HIF-1α. HIF-1α/C/EBP-β mRNA binding increases the splicing of C/EBP-β toward the production of LAP isoform that transcriptionally induces ABCB1 and ABCC1, promoting the efflux of cisplatin and docetaxel. LAP also decreases ABCA1, limiting the efflux of isopentenyl pyrophosphate, i.e. the endogenous activator of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells, and reducing the immune-killing. In NSCLC patients subjected to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, C/EBP-β LAP was abundant in hypoxic tumors and was associated with lower response to treatment and survival. LAP-overexpressing tumors in Hu-CD34+NSG mice recapitulated the patients' chemo-immuno-resistant phenotype. Interestingly, the ROS scavenger Mitoquinol chemo-immuno-sensitized immuno-xenografts, by disrupting the ROS/HIF-1α/LAP cascade. Conclusions: The impairment of mitochondrial metabolism induced by intermittent hypoxia increases the ROS-dependent stabilization of HIF-1α/LAP complex in NSCLC, producing chemo-immuno-resistance. Clinically used mitochondrial ROS scavengers may counteract such double resistance. Moreover, we suggest C/EBP-β LAP as a new predictive and prognostic factor in NSCLC patients.


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