>> Signaling Pathways >> Immunology/Inflammation

Immunology/Inflammation

The immune and inflammation-related pathway including the Toll-like receptors pathway, the B cell receptor signaling pathway, the T cell receptor signaling pathway, etc.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in host cell recognition and responses to microbial pathogens. TLR4 initially recruits TIRAP and MyD88. MyD88 then recruits IRAKs, TRAF6, and the TAK1 complex, leading to early-stage activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases [1]. TLR4 is endocytosed and delivered to intracellular vesicles and forms a complex with TRAM and TRIF, which then recruits TRAF3 and the protein kinases TBK1 and IKKi. TBK1 and IKKi catalyze the phosphorylation of IRF3, leading to the expression of type I IFN [2].

BCR signaling is initiated through ligation of mIg under conditions that induce phosphorylation of the ITAMs in CD79, leading to the activation of Syk. Once Syk is activated, the BCR signal is transmitted via a series of proteins associated with the adaptor protein B-cell linker (Blnk, SLP-65). Blnk binds CD79a via non-ITAM tyrosines and is phosphorylated by Syk. Phospho-Blnk acts as a scaffold for the assembly of the other components, including Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), Vav 1, and phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLCγ2) [3]. Following the assembly of the BCR-signalosome, GRB2 binds and activates the Ras-guanine exchange factor SOS, which in turn activates the small GTPase RAS. The original RAS signal is transmitted and amplified through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which including the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase RAF followed by MEK and extracellular signal related kinases ERK 1 and 2 [4]. After stimulation of BCR, CD19 is phosphorylated by Lyn. Phosphorylated CD19 activates PI3K by binding to the p85 subunit of PI3K and produce phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) from PIP2, and PIP3 transmits signals downstream [5].

Central process of T cells responding to specific antigens is the binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) to specific peptides bound to the major histocompatibility complex which expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Once TCR connected with its ligand, the ζ-chain–associated protein kinase 70 molecules (Zap-70) are recruited to the TCR-CD3 site and activated, resulting in an initiation of several signaling cascades. Once stimulation, Zap-70 forms complexes with several molecules including SLP-76; and a sequential protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK), and MAP kinase (MAPK) [6]. Two MAPK kinases, MKK4 and MKK7, have been reported to be the primary activators of JNK. MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6 are activators of P38 MAP kinase [7]. MAP kinase pathways are major pathways induced by TCR stimulation, and they play a key role in T-cell responses.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) binds to the cytosolic domain of CD28, leading to conversion of PIP2 to PIP3, activation of PKB (Akt) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), and subsequent signaling transduction [8].

 

References

[1] Kawai T, Akira S. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors[J]. Nature immunology, 2010, 11(5): 373-384.

[2] Kawai T, Akira S. Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity[J]. Immunity, 2011, 34(5): 637-650.

[3] Packard T A, Cambier J C. B lymphocyte antigen receptor signaling: initiation, amplification, and regulation[J]. F1000Prime Rep, 2013, 5(40.10): 12703.

[4] Zhong Y, Byrd J C, Dubovsky J A. The B-cell receptor pathway: a critical component of healthy and malignant immune biology[C]//Seminars in hematology. WB Saunders, 2014, 51(3): 206-218.

[5] Baba Y, Matsumoto M, Kurosaki T. Calcium signaling in B cells: regulation of cytosolic Ca 2+ increase and its sensor molecules, STIM1 and STIM2[J]. Molecular immunology, 2014, 62(2): 339-343.

[6] Adachi K, Davis M M. T-cell receptor ligation induces distinct signaling pathways in naive vs. antigen-experienced T cells[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011, 108(4): 1549-1554.

[7] Rincón M, Flavell R A, Davis R A. The Jnk and P38 MAP kinase signaling pathways in T cell–mediated immune responses[J]. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2000, 28(9): 1328-1337.

[8] Bashour K T, Gondarenko A, Chen H, et al. CD28 and CD3 have complementary roles in T-cell traction forces[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014, 111(6): 2241-2246.

Products for  Immunology/Inflammation

  1. CAS 등록 번호 상품명 정보
  2. GC50569 NLRP3-IN-2 glyburide 합성의 중간 기질인 NLRP3-IN-2는 심근세포에서 NLRP3 인플라마좀 형성을 억제하고 포도당 대사에 영향을 미치지 않으면서 마우스에서 심근 허혈/재관류 후 경색 크기를 제한합니다.  NLRP3-IN-2  Chemical Structure
  3. GC45194 α-(difluoromethyl)-DL-Arginine

    Bacteria synthesize the cellular growth factor putrescine through a number of pathways.

    α-(difluoromethyl)-DL-Arginine  Chemical Structure
  4. GC65446 α-Amyrin acetate α-천연 트리테르페노이드인 아미린 아세테이트는 항염증 활성, 진경제 프로파일 및 이완 효과가 있습니다. α-Amyrin acetate  Chemical Structure
  5. GC48279 α-D-Glucose-1-phosphate (sodium salt hydrate) An intermediate in glycogen metabolism α-D-Glucose-1-phosphate (sodium salt hydrate)  Chemical Structure
  6. GC52253 α-Enolase (1-19)-biotin Peptide A biotinylated α-enolase peptide α-Enolase (1-19)-biotin Peptide  Chemical Structure
  7. GC45206 α-GalCer analog 8

    α-Galactosylceramide analog 8 (α-GalCer analog 8) is a triazole derivative of α-galactosylceramide.

    α-GalCer analog 8  Chemical Structure
  8. GC40262 α-Humulene α-Humulene은 Tanacetum vulgare L의 주성분입니다. α-Humulene  Chemical Structure
  9. GC45601 α-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester-d5   α-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester-d5  Chemical Structure
  10. GC48292 α-MSH (human, mouse, rat, porcine, bovine, ovine) (trifluoroacetate salt) α-MSH(⋱-멜라닌 세포 자극 호르몬) TFA는 내인성 신경 펩티드이며 항염 및 해열 활성을 갖는 내인성 멜라노코르틴 수용체 4(MC4R) 작용제입니다. α-MSH (human, mouse, rat, porcine, bovine, ovine) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  11. GC41499 α-Phellandrene α-Phellandrene is a cyclic monoterpene that has been found in various plants, including Cannabis, and has diverse biological activities. α-Phellandrene  Chemical Structure
  12. GC63941 α-Solanine α- 감자의 주요 스테로이드성 글리코알칼로이드 중 하나인 생리활성 성분인 솔라닌이 암세포의 성장을 억제하고 세포자멸사를 유도하는 것으로 관찰되었습니다. α-Solanine  Chemical Structure
  13. GC67618 α-Tocopherol phosphate disodium α-유망한 항산화제인 토코페롤 인산염(알파-토코페롤 인산염) 이나트륨은 피부 세포 모델에서 장파 UVA1 유도 세포 사멸을 방지하고 UVA1 유도 활성산소를 제거할 수 있습니다. 821d96072c2d58d8970e76f526b0f6b8α-토코페롤 포스페이트 디소듐은 세포자살 억제에 치료 가능성이 있으며 고포도당/저산소 상태에서 내피 전구 세포의 이동 능력을 증가시키고 혈관 신생을 촉진합니다.821d96072c2d58d8970e76f526b0f6b8 α-Tocopherol phosphate disodium  Chemical Structure
  14. GC49467 β-Aescin A triterpenoid saponin with diverse biological activities β-Aescin  Chemical Structure
  15. GC37999 β-Anhydroicaritin β - Anhydroicaritin은 Boswellia carterii Birdware에서 분리되어 골다공증, 에스트로겐 조절 및 항종양 특성과 같은 중요한 생물학적 및 약리학적 효과가 있습니다. β-Anhydroicaritin  Chemical Structure
  16. GC45225 β-Apooxytetracycline β-Apooxytetracycline is a potential impurity found in commercial preparations of oxytetracycline. β-Apooxytetracycline  Chemical Structure
  17. GC48920 β-Carboline-1-carboxylic Acid An alkaloid with diverse biological activities β-Carboline-1-carboxylic Acid  Chemical Structure
  18. GC66870 β-D-Glucan β-D-글루칸은 천연 비소화성 다당류이며 Dectin-1 및 Toll 유사 수용체와 같은 인식 수용체에 의해 선택적으로 인식될 수 있을 뿐만 아니라 쥐 또는 인간 대식세포에 의해 쉽게 내재화될 수 있는 높은 생체 적합성입니다. 821d96072c2d58d8970e76f526b0f6b8목표 배송에 대한 속성입니다. 821d96072c2d58d8970e76f526b0f6b8β-d-글루칸은 프로바이오틱스의 장용 전달 수단입니다.821d96072c2d58d8970e76f526b0f6b8 β-D-Glucan  Chemical Structure
  19. GC48998 β-Defensin-1 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide β-Defensin-1 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  20. GC48298 β-Defensin-2 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) An antimicrobial peptide β-Defensin-2 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  21. GC45230 β-Defensin-3 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) β-Defensin-3 is a peptide with antimicrobial properties that protects the skin and mucosal membranes of the respiratory, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. β-Defensin-3 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  22. GC45231 β-Defensin-4 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt) β-Defensin-4 is a peptide with antimicrobial properties that protects the skin and mucosal membranes of the respiratory, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. β-Defensin-4 (human) (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  23. GC41623 β-Elemonic Acid β-엘레몬산은 보스웰리아 파피리페라에서 분리된 트리테르펜입니다. β-Elemonic Acid  Chemical Structure
  24. GC64619 β-Ionone β-Ionone은 위 선암 SGC7901 세포에서 세포 사멸 유도에 효과적입니다. 항암 활성. β-Ionone  Chemical Structure
  25. GC41502 β-Myrcene β-방향족 휘발성 화합물인 Myrcene(β-β-Myrcene)은 TNFα 유도 NF-κB 활성을 억제합니다. β-Myrcene  Chemical Structure
  26. GC45604 β-Rubromycin β-루브로마이신은 인간 면역결핍 바이러스-1(HIV-1) RNA-유도 DNA 폴리머(역전사효소)의 강력하고 선택적인 억제제입니다. β-Rubromycin  Chemical Structure
  27. GC52400 γ-Glu-Ala (trifluoroacetate salt) A dipeptide γ-Glu-Ala (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  28. GC48312 γ-Glu-Cys (ammonium salt) An intermediate in GSH synthesis γ-Glu-Cys (ammonium salt)  Chemical Structure
  29. GC40790 γ-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is an ω-6 fatty acid which can be elongated to arachidonic acid for endogenous eicosanoid synthesis. γ-Linolenic Acid ethyl ester  Chemical Structure
  30. GC45238 δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide is a potential impurity found in commercial preparations of triamcinolone acetonide. δ14-Triamcinolone acetonide  Chemical Structure
  31. GC40307 δ2-cis-Hexadecenoic Acid One of the first organisms in which quorum sensing was observed were Myxobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria, found mainly in soil and also common to marine and freshwater systems. δ2-cis-Hexadecenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  32. GC41393 ω-3 Arachidonic Acid methyl ester ω-3 Fatty acids, represented primarily by docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and α-linoleate, are essential dietary nutrients required for normal growth and development. ω-3 Arachidonic Acid methyl ester  Chemical Structure
  33. GC45713 (±)-α-Tocopherol Acetate (±)-α-토코페롤 아세테이트((±)-비타민 E 아세테이트)는 비타민 E의 경구 활성 합성 형태입니다. (±)-α-Tocopherol Acetate  Chemical Structure
  34. GC67191 (±)-α-Tocopherol nicotinate (±)-α-토코페롤 니코티네이트, 비타민 E - 니코티네이트는 세포막에서 지질 과산화를 방지하는 경구 활성 지용성 항산화제입니다. 821d96072c2d58d8970e76f526b0f6b8(±)-α-토코페롤 니코티네이트는 혈액에서 α로 가수분해됩니다. 821d96072c2d58d8970e76f526b0f6b8- 토코페롤 및 니아신 관련 혈관 질환 연구에 사용될 수 있습니다.821d96072c2d58d8970e76f526b0f6b8 (±)-α-Tocopherol nicotinate  Chemical Structure
  35. GC52010 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z),15(Z)-Octadecadienoic Acid An oxylipin gut microbiota metabolite (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z),15(Z)-Octadecadienoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  36. GC52013 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid An oxylipin and metabolite of linoleic acid (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  37. GC52421 (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid-d5 An internal standard for the quantification of (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (±)-10-hydroxy-12(Z)-Octadecenoic Acid-d5  Chemical Structure
  38. GC40112 (±)-Climbazole-d4 (±)-Climbazole-d4 is intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of climbazole by GC- or LC-MS. (±)-Climbazole-d4  Chemical Structure
  39. GC50708 (±)-ML 209 An RORγt antagonist (±)-ML 209  Chemical Structure
  40. GC39271 (±)-Naringenin (±)-나린제닌은 자연적으로 발생하는 플라보노이드입니다. (±)-Naringenin  Chemical Structure
  41. GC41212 (±)10(11)-EpDPA Cytochrome P450 metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids produces numerous bioactive epoxide regioisomers. (±)10(11)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  42. GC40466 (±)11(12)-EET (±)11(12)-EET는 NLRP3 인플라마좀 억제제입니다. (±)11(12)-EET  Chemical Structure
  43. GC40467 (±)11-HETE (±)11-HETE is one of the six monohydroxy fatty acids produced by the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid. (±)11-HETE  Chemical Structure
  44. GC40802 (±)12(13)-DiHOME

    (±)12(13)-DiHOME is the diol form of (±)12(13)-EpOME, a cytochrome P450-derived epoxide of linoleic acid also known as isoleukotoxin.

    (±)12(13)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  45. GC41191 (±)13(14)-EpDPA (±)13(14)-EpDPA(13,14-EpDPE)는 시토크롬 P-450 에폭시게나제와 도코사헥사엔산(DHA)의 반응 생성물입니다. (±)13(14)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  46. GC40355 (±)13-HpODE (±)13-HpODE(13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid)는 lipoxygenase에 의한 리놀레산의 산화에 의해 생성되는 과산화수소의 라세미 혼합물입니다. (±)13-HpODE  Chemical Structure
  47. GC41288 (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide is an ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxide. (±)17(18)-EpETE-Ethanolamide  Chemical Structure
  48. GC40362 (±)18-HEPE (±)18-HEPE is produced by non-enzymatic oxidation of EPA. (±)18-HEPE  Chemical Structure
  49. GC41655 (±)19(20)-EDP Ethanolamide (±)19(20)-EDP ethanolamide is an ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxide and cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonist (EC50s = 108 and 280 nM for CB1 and CB2, respectively). (±)19(20)-EDP Ethanolamide  Chemical Structure
  50. GC40270 (±)5(6)-DiHET

    5(6)-DiHET is a fully racemic version of the enantiomeric forms biosynthesized from 5(6)-EET by epoxide hydrolases.

    (±)5(6)-DiHET  Chemical Structure
  51. GC41203 (±)7(8)-EpDPA Docosahexaenoic acid is the most abundant ω-3 fatty acid in neural tissues, especially in the brain and retina. (±)7(8)-EpDPA  Chemical Structure
  52. GC40801 (±)9(10)-DiHOME (±)9(10)-DiHOME은 9,10-DiHOME의 라세미체입니다. (±)9(10)-DiHOME  Chemical Structure
  53. GC46000 (•)-Drimenol A sesquiterpene alcohol (•)-Drimenol  Chemical Structure
  54. GC40809 (+)-β-Citronellol (+)-β-시트로넬롤(D-시트로넬롤)은 제라늄 에센셜 오일에서 발견되는 알코올성 모노테르펜입니다. (+)-β-Citronellol  Chemical Structure
  55. GC49268 (+)-δ-Cadinene A sesquiterpene with antimicrobial and anticancer activities (+)-δ-Cadinene  Chemical Structure
  56. GN10654 (+)-Corynoline Extracted from corydalis sheareri S. Moore;Store the product in sealed,cool and dry condition (+)-Corynoline  Chemical Structure
  57. GC45263 (+)-D-threo-PDMP (hydrochloride) (+)-D-threo-PDMP is a ceramide analog and is one of the four possible stereoisomers of PDMP. (+)-D-threo-PDMP (hydrochloride)  Chemical Structure
  58. GC31691 (+)-DHMEQ (+)-DHMEQ는 항산화 전사 인자 Nrf2의 활성화제입니다. (+)-DHMEQ  Chemical Structure
  59. GC45266 (+)-Macrosphelide A (+)-Macrosphelide A는 macrolide 항생제입니다. (+)-Macrosphelide A  Chemical Structure
  60. GC40266 (+)-Praeruptorin A (+)-Praeruptorin A는 Peucedanum praeruptorum(Bai-Hua Qian Hu라고도 함)의 주요 생리 활성 성분입니다. (+)-Praeruptorin A  Chemical Structure
  61. GC18749 (+)-Rugulosin (+)-Rugulosin은 Penicillium rugulosum Thom의 결정질 착색 물질입니다. (+)-Rugulosin  Chemical Structure
  62. GC63969 (+)-Schisandrin B (+)-Schisandrin B는 Schisandrin B의 거울상 이성질체입니다. (+)-Schisandrin B  Chemical Structure
  63. GC40264 (+)-Valencene

    (+)-Valencene is a sesquiterpene that has been found in C.

    (+)-Valencene  Chemical Structure
  64. GC49502 (-)-β-Sesquiphellandrene A sesquiterpene with antiviral and anticancer activities (-)-β-Sesquiphellandrene  Chemical Structure
  65. GC32705 (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin) (-)-DHMEQ(Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin)(Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin)는 시스테인 잔기에 공유 결합하는 강력하고 선택적이고 비가역적인 NF-κB 억제제입니다. (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin)  Chemical Structure
  66. GC14049 (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (-)-에피갈로카테킨 갈레이트(EGCG)(EGCG)는 녹차의 주요 폴리페놀로, 세포 증식을 억제하고 세포 사멸을 유도할 수 있습니다. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)  Chemical Structure
  67. GC45248 (-)-FINO2 (-)-FINO2는 강력한 ferroptosis 유도제입니다. (-)-FINO2는 GPX4 활성을 억제합니다. (-)-FINO2는 제1철을 산화시키는 안정한 산화제이며 다양한 pH 수준에서 안정합니다. (-)-FINO2는 광범위한 지질 과산화를 유발합니다. (-)-FINO2  Chemical Structure
  68. GC46245 (-)-G-Lactone A bicyclic γ-lactone (-)-G-Lactone  Chemical Structure
  69. GC38316 (-)-Limonene (-)-리모넨((S)-(-)-리모넨)은 많은 솔잎 오일과 테레빈유에서 발견되는 모노테르펜입니다. (-)-Limonene  Chemical Structure
  70. GC46247 (-)-Mycousnine A microbial metabolite with antibacterial and antifungal activities (-)-Mycousnine  Chemical Structure
  71. GC45251 (-)-Neplanocin A S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of SAH to adenosine and homocysteine. (-)-Neplanocin A  Chemical Structure
  72. GC45272 (-)-Rasfonin (-)-Rasfonin은 곰팡이 2차 대사 산물이며 작은 G 단백질 Ras를 억제합니다. (-)-Rasfonin은 ACHN 세포(신장암 세포주)에서 세포자살, 괴사 및 자가포식을 유도합니다. (-)-Rasfonin  Chemical Structure
  73. GC40803 (25S)-δ7-Dafachronic Acid During unfavorable environmental conditions, C. (25S)-δ7-Dafachronic Acid  Chemical Structure
  74. GC52442 (D)-PPA 1 (trifluoroacetate salt) An inhibitor of the PD-1-PD-L1 protein-protein interaction (D)-PPA 1 (trifluoroacetate salt)  Chemical Structure
  75. GC41700 (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (CSTMP) is a stilbene derivative with antioxidant and anticancer activities. (E)-2-(2-Chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine  Chemical Structure
  76. GC61668 (E)-3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid (E)-3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid는 3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid의 덜 활성인 이성질체입니다. (E)-3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid  Chemical Structure
  77. GC41702 (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil (BVU) is a pyrimidine base and an inactive metabolite of the antiviral agents sorivudine and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) that may be regenerated to BVDU in vivo. (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil  Chemical Structure
  78. GC49003 (E)-Ajoene A disulfide with diverse biological activities (E)-Ajoene  Chemical Structure
  79. GC41703 (E)-C-HDMAPP (ammonium salt) Synthetic and natural alkyl phosphates, also known as phosphoantigens, stimulate the proliferation of γδ-T lymphocytes. (E)-C-HDMAPP (ammonium salt)  Chemical Structure
  80. GC39747 (E/Z)-GSK5182 (E/Z)-GSK5182는 (E)-GSK5182 및 (Z)-GSK5182 이성질체의 라세미 화합물입니다. (E/Z)-GSK5182  Chemical Structure
  81. GC61564 (E/Z)-IT-603 (E/Z)-IT-603은 E-IT-603과 Z-IT-603(IT-603)의 혼합물입니다. (E/Z)-IT-603  Chemical Structure
  82. GC41721 (R)-α-Lipoic Acid (R)-α-Lipoic acid is the naturally occurring enantiomer of lipoic acid, a cyclic disulfide antioxidant. (R)-α-Lipoic Acid  Chemical Structure
  83. GC49167 (R)-(+)-Trityl glycidyl ether A synthetic precursor (R)-(+)-Trityl glycidyl ether  Chemical Structure
  84. GC13030 (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen은 COX에 비활성인 Ibuprofen의 R 거울상 이성질체로 NF-κB 활성화를 억제합니다. (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen은 항염 및 항통각 효과를 나타냅니다. (R)-(-)-Ibuprofen  Chemical Structure
  85. GC41620 (R)-(-)-Mellein (R)-(-)-Mellein은 이 Aspergillus의 배양액에서 분리된 항생제입니다. (R)-(-)-Mellein  Chemical Structure
  86. GC41712 (R)-3-hydroxy Myristic Acid Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are components of the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. (R)-3-hydroxy Myristic Acid  Chemical Structure
  87. GC65610 (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone은 Alpinia officinarum에서 찾을 수 있는 diarylheptanoid입니다. (R)-5-Hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone  Chemical Structure
  88. GC65373 (R)-IL-17 modulator 4 (R)-IL-17 변조기 4는 IL-17 변조기 4의 R 구성입니다. (R)-IL-17 modulator 4  Chemical Structure
  89. GC12578 (R)-Lisofylline (R)-리소필린((R)-리소필린)은 항염증 특성을 가진 펜톡시필린 대사물의 (R)-거울상 이성질체입니다. (R)-Lisofylline  Chemical Structure
  90. GC52185 (R,S)-Anatabine-d4 (R,S)-Anatabine-d4  Chemical Structure
  91. GC39321 (Rac)-Myrislignan (Rac)-Myrislignan은 Myrislignan의 라세미체입니다. (Rac)-Myrislignan  Chemical Structure
  92. GC66334 (Rac)-PF-184 hydrate (Rac)-PF-184 수화물은 IC50이 37nM인 B 키나아제 2(IKK-2) 억제제인 강력한 억제 인자-κ입니다. 821d96072c2d58d8970e76f526b0f6b8(Rac)-PF-184 수화물은 항염 효과가 있습니다.821d96072c2d58d8970e76f526b0f6b8 (Rac)-PF-184 hydrate  Chemical Structure
  93. GC46345 (S)-(-)-Perillaldehyde (S)-(-)-Perillaldehyde는 Perillae Herba에 함유된 에센셜 오일의 주성분입니다. (S)-(-)-Perillaldehyde  Chemical Structure
  94. GC49028 (S)-3-Thienylglycine A thienyl-containing amino acid (S)-3-Thienylglycine  Chemical Structure
  95. GC52192 (S)-4'-nitro-Blebbistatin (S)-4'-nitro-Blebbistatin은 생리학적, 발달 및 세포 생물학 연구에서 미오신 II의 특정 역할에 대한 연구에 사용되는 비세포독성, 광안정성, 형광성 및 특정 미오신 II 억제제입니다. (S)-4'-nitro-Blebbistatin  Chemical Structure
  96. GC48719 (S)-Canadine (S)-Canadine은 살충 활성이 있는 베르베린 생합성의 알칼로이드 및 중간체입니다. (S)-Canadine  Chemical Structure
  97. GC46352 (S)-DO271 An inactive control for DO264 (S)-DO271  Chemical Structure
  98. GC11867 (S)-Lisofylline inactive optical enantiomer of (R)-LSF, an anti-inflammatory agent (S)-Lisofylline  Chemical Structure
  99. GC13427 (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate (S)-메틸이소티오우레아 설페이트는 유도성 산화질소 합성효소(iNOS)의 강력하고 선택적이고 경쟁적인 억제제입니다. (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate  Chemical Structure
  100. GC41740 (S)-p38 MAPK Inhibitor III (S)-p38 MAPK inhibitor III is a methylsulfanylimidazole that inhibits p38 MAP kinase (IC50 = 0.90 μM in vitro). (S)-p38 MAPK Inhibitor III  Chemical Structure
  101. GC46356 (Z)-9-Hexadecenol An unsaturated long-chain fatty alcohol with diverse biological activities (Z)-9-Hexadecenol  Chemical Structure

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